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Statistics

a science that deals with the collection , organization , analysis , interpretation , and presentation of information that is stated numerically . Biostatistics statistics applied to biological sciences.

Types of Statistics

Descriptive

concerned with the collection, organization , and presentation of data in a form that is understandable to all . Its objective is to summarize some of the important features of set of data. Inferential concerned with the formulation of conclusions or generalizations about a population based on an observation or a series of observations of a sample drawn from a population.

Population

a complete set of individuals , objects ,or events under study . Population is also known as Universe which is either finite or infinite. Sample subset of a population. Random sample selected in such a manner that each element of the population is given an equal chance of being chosen.

1. Education : (a) to formulate policies on admission / readmission (b) device system of measurement and evaluation. 2. Business : (a) assess and observe patterns of behaviors , (b) forecast trends (c) quality control. 3. Medicine/Dentistry : (a) to evaluate effectiveness of some dental / medical practice in prevention of particular disease (b) to test effectiveness of drugs. 4. Biologist : (a) determine effects of certain treatments or conditions to human behavior (effect of anxiety on task performance ) (b) effect of family size on achievement (c) effect of alcohol on productivity.

Application of Statistics

Baseline data collected during needs assessment phase of community programming , oral health education process , or pretest of experimental study. Raw data collected but not organized Array data organized in ascending or descending order Continuous data capable of any degree of measurement along linear scale such as age, height , weight. Discrete data counted only in terms of whole numbers such as gender , marital status , number of patients.

Data

collection is the first step in a statistical consideration and is a very crucial stage in many statistical inquiries. In marketing studies , interview or questionnaire method are often employed . Behavioral scientists use observation , while scientific researchers do experimentation. Makers of feasibility studies utilize records of data available in various government agencies ( SEC, National Census and Statistics , Central Bank ,etc.)

Interview

Method person to person encounter between solicitor of information ( interviewer ) and provider ( interviewee). Advantages : questions can be repeated , rephrased or modified for better understanding . Immediate response is insured and answers may be clarified ensuring more precise information. Disadvantages : very costly , can cover only a limited number of individuals. Application : a practical method , when population involves diversified classes of professionals .

Questionnaire Method utilizes questions which are either mailed or hand-carried. Advantages : more economical , can actually involve a greater number of individual population with same amount of funding. Respondents can find time to formulate answers . Anonymity is insured. Observation Method subjects individual or collectively are observed depending on the objectives of the investigator. He can either relate and participate in their subjects activities or keeps himself at a distance while making the observation. Uses : data gathering pertaining to behavior of individuals or a group at the time of occurrence of a given situation. Limitations : in most cases , observer can only make observations at the time of occurrence of the appropriate events ( i.e. behavior in time of fire or disasters )

Documents

Method use of vital statistics from existing records ( i.e. number of households , birth rates , death rates , marriages , etc.) Advantages : economical not only in terms of cost but also of time and effort. Uses : Business projecting trends and values based on historical data. School guidance counselors keep anecdotal records of students. Companies employees records as basis for promotion / dismissal. Experimental Method compare effectiveness of drugs to certain diseases.

It is very important that statistical data be arranged in such a manner to allow reader to distinguish their essential features.

Textual Form

This

is also known as paragraph form and utilized when the data to be presented are purely qualitative or when very few numbers are involved . Advantages : effective device when the objective is to call the readers attention to some data that requires special emphasis. Disadvantages : not desirable when too many figures are involved as the reader may fail to grasp the significance of certain quantitative relationships .

Tabular Form

To make comparison and draw relationships with ease . This is more convenient and understandable than the textual method. The essential components of the statistical table are : table heading , body , stubs and column captions or borders. Table heading shows the table number and the title. The body main part of the table which contains the quantitative information Stubs label opposite the rows of the body and usually to the left. These are classifications which are presented as value of a variable. Column captions or boxheads captions that appear above the columns .In addition to these four components , footnote may be placed immediately below the main part of the table . A source note may be placed beneath the footnote to acknowledge the source of the data.

Most attractive and effective method of presentation . Limitations no matter how accurate the graph is drawn , it is usually not quite easy to determine the exact figures on which it is based. Components like a table , it must have an identity and a brief explanation of what it is about . Types : Line graph effective device to portray changes in values with respect to time. It has horizontal axis where time is chronologically arranged and a vertical axis where relative values are indicated. Bar graph this essentially consists of bars and rectangles which are drawn either vertically or horizontally depending on the type of data and the purpose of comparison. Pie chart particularly appropriate for portraying the relative magnitude of the component parts of the whole. This is constructed by dividing a circle , into sectors. Each sector has a size proportional to the percentage it represents , the number of degrees of the central angle of the sector representing a component is measured using the formula. Number of Degrees percentage x 3.6 degrees where the value 3.6 is 1 % of 360 degrees, the measure of the central angle of the circle. Statistical maps used to present quantitative data which describe or classify geographical areas.

Water System

A 1st 2nd East West 30.4 67 B 50 78 C 80 56 D 24.6 89

3rd

North

54

47

39

65

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr East West North

Population in

Millions

40 30 20 10 0

1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 Year Growth of the Philippine Population (1870-1970)

Frequency Distribution

To

better explain data that have been collected , the data vales are often organized and presented in a table . The data values are first arranged in order from the lowest to highest value. ( Array ) The frequency with which each value occurs is then tabulated. This type of data display shows each value that occurs in the data set and how often each value occurs.

Array : Scores of the 3rd year students in the midterm exam ( Comm. Dent 1 ) 35 40 43 44 44 44 45 50 53 53 53 55 57 60 62 68 68 68 68 69 70 70 71 72 72 73 74 75 76 79 79 82 82 83 Distribution of the scores of the 3rd year students in the midterm exam in Comm. Dent. Scores Frequency 35 41 2 42 48 4 49 55 5 56 62 3 63 69 5 70 76 9 77 83 5 84 90 0

A.

Measures of Central Tendency / Location Describes the middle value in a data set. 3 Measures of Central Tendency 1. Mean 2. Median 3. Mode

1. Mean the quantity commonly known as the arithmetic average . The symbol for the mean is a capital letter X with a bar above it . It is calculated by summing all the values in a data set and then dividing the total by the number of observations. X= x n Using the scores ; 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 9 10 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 X = 200 / 20 = 10

2.

Median is the value that divides the distribution of data points into two equal parts, that is , the value at which 50% of the data points lie above it and 50% lie below it. Make array and arrange the values in ascending order : Ex. 8 8 10 10 10 12 13 14 15 16 18 Next , determine which value cuts the array into equal portions . 8 8 10 10 10 12 13 14 15 16 18

If the number of the observations is even , simply take the midpoint of the two values that would straddle the center of the data set. Ex. 8 8 10 10 10 13 14 15 16 18

Median = 10 + 13 = 11.5 2

3. Mode is that value that occurs with the greatest frequency . Ex. 8 8 10 10 10 12 13 14 15 16 18 Mode = 10 It is possible for a data set not to have a mode. It is possible also for a data set to have several modes.

Describes how a data are different from one another. 1. Range largest value minus the smallest value. Ex. 18 19 20 21 22 22 18 = 4 2. Variance is a measure of the average deviation or spread of scores around the mean. Zero variance would occur when all scores in distribution are equal. To compute : 1.Calculate the mean X of the group . X = 18 + 19 + 20 + 21 + 22 5 = 20 2.Subtract the mean from each value X. d 18 20 = -2 19 20 = -1 20 20 = 0 21 20 = 1 22 20 = 2

3. Square each deviation from the mean. ( X X ) d d -2 4 -1 1 0 0 +1 1 +2 4 4. Add the squared deviations from the mean . 4 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 4 = 10 5. Divide the sums of the squares by 1 less than the # of values in the set of data : variance ( s ) = 10 / 5 1 = 10 / 4 = 2.5 6. Find the square root of the variance : Standard deviation ( s ) = 2.5 = 1.6

S = ( X X ) n-1

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