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Advanced wastewater treatment

Gyeongsang National University Department of Biological and chemical Engineering Environmental Engineering Lab Ngoc Thuan Le

Need for advanced wastewater treatment


1. 2. 3. 4. Remove organic matter and TSS to meet more stringent discharge and reuse requirements. Remove TSS for more effective disinfection. Remove nutrients contained to limit eutrophication of sensitive water bodies. Remove specific inorganic (e.g., heavy metals) and organic constituents (e.g., MTBE) to meet more stringent discharge and reuse requirements both surface water and land-based effluent dispersal and for indirect potable reuse application. Remove specific inorganic and inorganic constituents for industrial reuse (e.g., cooling water, process water).

5.

Technologies used for advanced treatment


1. Removal of organic and inorganic colloidal and suspended solids (suspended solids, organic matters), using filtration Depth filtration Surface filtration Membrane filtratration

Depth filtration

Surface filtration

2.

3.

Removal of dissolved organic constituents (total organic carbon, refractory organic, volatile organic compounds) Carbon adsorption Reverse osmosis Chemical precipitation Chemical oxidation Advanced chemical oxidation Electrodialysis Distillation Removal of dissolved inorganic constituents (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, total dissolved solids) Chemical precipitation Ion exchange Ultrafiltration Reverse osmosis Electrodialysis Distillation
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Removal of biological constituents (bacteria, protozoan cysts and oocysts, viruses) Depth filtration Micro and ultrafiltration Reverse osmosis Electrodialysis Distillation

Because the effectiveness of the unit operations and processes listed is variable, disinfection of the treated effluent is required for most application

Introduction to depth filtration

Grain size is the principal filter medium characteristic that affects the filtration operation

a. b.

Flow during filtration cycle Flow during backwash cycle

Particle removal mechanisms

a. b. c.

By straining By sedimentation or inertial impaction By interception

d. e.

By adhesion By flocculation

Other phenomena: chemical/physical adsorption or biological growth


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Selection and design considerations for depth filters


1. Selection and design filter technologies must be based on: Knowledge of the types of filters that are available A general understanding of their performance characteristics An appreciation of the process variables controlling depth filtration Design for effluent filtration systems include: Influent wastewater characteristics Design and operation of the biological treatment process Type of filtration technology to be used Available flow-control options Type of filter backwashing system Filter control systems and intrumentation

2.

Available filtration technologies

a. Conventional mono-medium downflow filter

b. Conventional dual-medium downflow filter

c. Conventional mono-medium deep-bed downflow filter

d. Continuous backwash deep-bed upflow filter

e. Pulse-bed filter

f. Traveling-bridge filter

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Synthetic-medium filter

High pressure filter

Slow sand filter

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Two-stage filtration

A large size sand diameter is used in the first filter to increase the contact time and to minimize clogging A smaller sand size is used in the second filter to remove residual particles from the first stage filter

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Effluent filtration with chemical addition

To achieve specific treatment objectives including removal of specific contaminants Phosphorus Metal ions Humic substances Chemicals commonly used in effluent filtration Organic polymers (cationic, anionic, or nonionic (no charge) Alum and ferric compounds (chloride)

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Surface filtration

Materials: woven metal fabrics, cloth fabrics of different weaves, and variety of synthetic materials Surface filters have openings in size range from 10 to 30m. In membrane filters the pore size can vary from 0.0001 to 1.0m

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Membrane filtration
Membrance process Microfiltration Membrane driving force Hydrostatic pressure difference Typical separation mechanism sieve Operating structure (pore size) Macropore s (>50nm) Typical operating range, m 0.08-2.0 Permeate description Water+dissolved solutes Typical constituents removed TSS, turbidity, protozoan, some bacteria and viruses

Ultrafiltration

Hydrostatic pressure difference


Hydrostatic pressure difference Hydrostatic pressure difference

sieve

Mesopores (2-50nm)
Micropores (<2nm) Dense (<2nm)

0.005-0.2

Water+small molecules
Water+very small molecules, ionic solutes Water+very small molecules, ionic solutes

Macromolecules, colloids, most bacteria, some viruses, protein


Small molecules, some harness, viruses very small molecules, color hardness, sulfates, nitrate, sodium, other ions

Nanofiltration

sieve+solution/dif fusion+exclusion solution/diffusion +exclusion

0.001-0.01

Reverse osmosis

0.00010.001

Dialysis

Concentration difference
Electromotive force

Diffusion

Mesopores (2-50nm)
Micropores (<2nm)

Water+very small molecules,


Water, ionic solutes

Macromolecules, colloids, most bacteria, some viruses, protein


ionized salt ions

Electrodialysis

ion exchange with selective membranes

Materials: different organic or inorganic materials: polypropylene, cellulose acetate, aromatic polyamides, and thin film composite (TFC).

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Reverse osmosis (RO)


When two solutions having different solute concentrations are separated by a semi permeable membrane, a difference in chemical potential will exist across the membrane RO is used for the removal of dissolved constituents from the wastewater remaining after advanced treatment with depth filtration of microfiltration.

a. b. c.

Osmotic flow Osmotic equilibrium Reverse osmosis

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Electrodialysis (ED)
In the electrodialysis process, ionic components of a solution are separated through the use of semipereable ion-selective membrane The current required for electrodialysis can be estimated by Faradays Laws of electrolysis

I
Where: I = current, amp

FQN nEc

F = Faradays constant = 96,485amp.s/gram equivalent = 96,485 A.s/eq n = number of cell in the stack Ec = current efficiency expressed as a fraction

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Adsorption
Adsorption is the process of accumulation substances that are in solution on a suitable interface

Types of adsorbents: activated carbon, synthetic polymeric, and silica-based adsorbents


Activated carbon: (1) powdered activated carbon (PAC), a diameter of less than 0.074mm (200 sieve), and (2) granular activated carbon (GAC), a diameter greater than 0.1mm (140 sieve)

Type of activated carbon Parameter Total surface area Bulk density Particle density, wetted in water Particle size range Effective size Uniformity coefficient Mean pore radius Iodine number Abrasion number Ash minimum % Unit

GAC
m /g kg/m kg/l mm (m) mm UC
3 2

PAC
800-1800 360-740 1.3-1.4 (5-50) na na 20-40 800-1200 70-80 6

700-1300 400-500 1.0-1.5 0.1-2.36 0.6-0.9 1.9 16-30 600-1100 75-85 8

Moisture as packed

2-8

3-10

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Fundamentals of adsorption
Absorbent phase concentration data

(C0 Ce )V qe m
Where: qe= absorbent (solids) phase concentration after equilibrium, mg adsorbate/g adsorbent Co = initial concentration of adsorbate, mg/L

Ce = final equilibrium concentration of adsorbate after absorption has occurred, mg/L


V = volume of liquid in the reactor, L m = mass of absorbent, g

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Types of activated carbon contactors

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Gas stripping
Gas stripping involves the mass transfer of a gas from the liquid phase to the gas phase.

Considerable attention: remove ammonia, odorous gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

Typical water and airflow patterns for gas stripping towers

Cross flow Countercurrent flow Current flow

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Typical stripping towers for the removal of volatile gases from water

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ION EXCHANGE

Ion exchange is a unit process in which ions of a given species are displaced from an insoluble exchange material by ions of a different species in solution. Domestic water softening: where sodium ions from a cationic-exchange resin replace the calcium and magnesium ions in the treated water. Ion exchange has been used in wastewater application for removal of nitrogen, heavy metals, and total dissolved solids

Ion-exchange materials: Naturally, zeolites (complex of aluminosilicates with sodium) Synthetic ion-exchange material: resins or phenolic polymers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Strong-acid cation Weak-acid cation Strong-base anion Weak-base anion Heavy-metal selective chelating resins

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Typical ion-exchange reaction


For natural zeolite (Z) Ca2+ ZNa+ + Mg2+ Fe2+ Ca2+ Z Mg2+ + 2Na+ Fe2+

For synthetic resin (R)


Strong acid cation exchange: RSO3H + Na+ 2RSO3Na + Ca+2 Weak acid cation exchange: RCOOH + Na+ 2RCOONa + Ca+2 Strong-base anion exchange: RR3NOH + ClWeak-base anion exchange: RNH3OH + Cl2RNH3Cl + SO42RR3NCl + OHRNH3Cl + OH(RNH3)2SO4 + 2Cl24 RCOONa + H+ (RCOO)2Ca + 2Na+ RSO3Na + H+ (RSO3)2Ca + 2Na+

Application of ion-exchange
Typical flow diagram for the removal of ammonia by zeolite exchange

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Application of ion-exchange
Typical flow diagram for the removal of hardness and for the complete demineralization of water

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Chemical oxidation

Oxidizing agents:
ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),

permanganate (MnO4),
chloride dioxide (ClO2), chlorine (Cl2) or (HClO) and

oxygen (O2)

For reduction of:


BOD, COD,

ammonia,
nonbiodegradable organic compounds.

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Phosphate precipitation with aluminum and iron Al3+ + HnPO43-n AlPO4 + nH

Fe3+ + HnPO43-n

FePO4 + nH

There are many competing reactions because of the effects of alkalinity, pH, trace elements, and ligands in wastewater

Dosages are established of bench scale test and occasionally by full scale tests.

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Ozone/Hydrogen peroxide

H2O2 + 2O3

HO* + HO* +3O2

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DISTILLATION
Distillation is a unit operation in which the components of a liquid solution are separated by vaporization and condensation.

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Thank you for your attention!

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