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# Chapter 3

Kinematics in Two Dimensions

Learning Outcomes
y Describe motion of bodies in two dimension y What is a projectile y Characteristics of a projectile's motion y Horizontal and vertical components of

velocity and displacement y Initial velocity components y Examples of problems

vx ! vox  a x t

x!
2
2 x

1 2

vox  vx t 2 ox x ! vox t  a x t 1 2 v ! v  2a x x .

v y ! voy  a y t y ! voy t  a y t y! 2 y 1 2 2 1 2 .

v 2 oy oy  v y t v ! v  2a y y .

and (c) the final velocity of the spacecraft at time 7. In the y direction.Example 1 A Moving Spacecraft In the x direction.0 s. the spacecraft has an initial velocity component of +22 m/s and an acceleration of +24 m/s2. Find (a) x and vx. . (b) y and vy. the analogous quantities are +14 m/s and an acceleration of +12 m/s2.

Do this for x and y.Reasoning Strategy 1. Select the appropriate equation. When the motion is divided into segments. Keep in mind that there may be two possible answers to a kinematics problem. 5. 4. 3. Verify that the information contains values for at least three of the kinematic variables. remember that the final velocity of one segment is the initial velocity for the next. 2. 6. Make a drawing. Decide which directions are to be called positive (+) and negative (-). Write down the values that are given for any of the five kinematic variables associated with each direction. .

0 m/s2 vx ? vox +22 m/s t 7.0 m/s2 vy ? voy +14 m/s t 7. and (c) the final velocity of the spacecraft at time 7.0 s . the spacecraft has an initial velocity component of +22 m/s and an acceleration of +24 m/s2.0 s y ? ay +12. Find (a) x and vx.0 s. (b) y and vy. the analogous quantities are +14 m/s and an acceleration of +12 m/s2. x ? ax +24. In the y direction.Example 1 A Moving Spacecraft In the x direction.

x ? ax +24.0 s x ! vox t  a xt 1 2 ! .0 m/s2 2 1 2 vx ? vox +22 m/s t 7.

22 m s .

7.0 s  vx ! vox  a x t .

24 m s .

7.0 s 2 2 ! 740 m ! .

22 m s  24 m s .

2 .

7.0 s ! 190 m s .

y ? ay +12.0 s y ! voy t  a y t ! .0 m/s2 1 2 2 1 2 vy ? voy +14 m/s t 7.

m s .

7.0 s  12 m s 14 v y ! voy  a y t ! .

m s  .

m s 14 12 2 .

2 .

0 s 2 ! 390 m .7.

7.0 s ! 98 m s .

v v y ! 98 m s U v x ! 190 m s v! .

m s 190 1 2  .

98 m s ! 210 m s Q 2 U ! tan .

98 190 ! 27 .

.

. A projectile is any object which once projected or dropped continues in motion by its own inertia and is influenced only by the downward force of gravity.What is a projectile? y A projectile is an object upon which the only force acting is gravity.

Projectile Motion and Inertia .

Projectile Motion y Two-dimensional motion of an object y Vertical y Horizontal .

Types of Projectile Motion y Horizontal y Motion of a ball rolling freely along a level surface y Horizontal velocity is ALWAYS constant y Vertical y Motion of a freely falling object y Force due to gravity y Vertical component of velocity changes with time y Parabolic y Path traced by an object accelerating only in the vertical direction while moving at constant horizontal velocity .

Projectile Motion: Basic Equations The acceleration is independent of the direction of the velocity: .

80m/s2.Under the influence of gravity alone. a y ! 9.80 m s 2 ax ! 0 v x ! vox ! constant . an object near the surface of the Earth will accelerate downwards at 9.

Examples of Projectile Motion y Launching a Cannon ball .

.

8 ms-2 y Vectors v xi ! vi cos(U ) v yi ! vi sin(U ) .Equations y X.Component x f ! xi  v xi t y Y.Component 1 2 y f ! y i  v yi t  gt 2 2 2 v yf ! v yi  2 g(y v yf ! v yi  gt Note: g= 9.

Factors Affecting Projectile Motion y What two factors would affect projectile motion? y Angle y Initial velocity Initial Velocity Angle .

.Example 3 A Falling Care Package The airplane is moving horizontally with a constant velocity of +115 m/s at an altitude of 1050m. Determine the time required for the care package to hit the ground.

3 Projectile Motion y ay vy voy 0 m/s t ? -1050 m -9.80 m/s2 .3.

80 m/s2 2 y ! voy t  a y t 1 2 y ! a yt 1 2 2y 2.3 Projectile Motion y ay vy voy 0 m/s 2 t ? -1050 m -9.3.

80 m s ay . 1050 m ! 14.6 s ! t! 2  9.

3.3 Projectile Motion Example 4 The Velocity of the Care Package What are the magnitude and direction of the final velocity of the care package? .

6 s -1050 m -9.80 m/s2 .3.3 Projectile Motion y ay vy ? voy 0 m/s t 14.

80 m/s2 .3.6 s -1050 m -9.3 Projectile Motion y ay vy ? voy 0 m/s t 14.

v y ! voy  a y t ! 0  .

6 s  2 ! 143 m s .80 m s 14. 9.

. You point a rifle straight up into the air and fire it..3. Suppose you are driving a convertible with the top down. or in the barrel of the rifle? . The car is moving to the right at constant velocity. In the absence of air resistance. ahead of you. where would the bullet land ± behind you.3 Projectile Motion Conceptual Example 5 I Shot a Bullet into the Air.

determine the maximum height that the ball attains. Ignoring air resistance.3.0 degrees and the initial speed of the ball is 22 m/s.3 Projectile Motion Example 6 The Height of a Kickoff A placekicker kicks a football at and angle of 40. .

3 Projectile Motion vo voy U vox voy ! vo sin U ! .3.

22 m s sin 40 ! 14 m s Q vox ! vo sin U ! .

22 m s cos 40 ! 17 m s Q .

80 m/s2 vy 0 voy 14 m/s t .3.3 Projectile Motion y ? ay -9.

80 m/s2 vy 0 voy 14 m/s t 2 y 2 oy v ! v  2a y y 2 y! v v 2a y 0  .3.3 Projectile Motion y ? 2 y 2 oy ay -9.

8 m s . m s 14 y! ! 10 m 2 2  9.

.

3.3 Projectile Motion Example 7 The Time of Flight of a Kickoff What is the time of flight between kickoff and landing? .

3.80 m/s2 vy voy 14 m/s t ? .3 Projectile Motion y 0 ay -9.

3.80 m/s2 vy 1 2 voy 14 m/s 2 t ? y ! voy t  a y t 0 ! .3 Projectile Motion y 0 ay -9.

m s t  14 1 2 .

 9.80 m s t 2 2 0 ! 2.

m s  .

80 m s 14  t 2 t ! 2. 9.9 s .

3 Projectile Motion Example 8 The Range of a Kickoff Calculate the range R of the projectile. x ! vox t  a x t ! voxt ! .3.

m s .

9 s ! 49 m 17 1 2 2 .2.

strikes the water with greater velocity? . The stones have identical initial speeds. but stone 1 is thrown downward at some angle above the horizontal and stone 2 is thrown at the same angle below the horizontal. a person throws two stones. if either.3 Projectile Motion Conceptual Example 10 Two Ways to Throw a Stone From the top of a cliff. which stone.3. Neglecting air resistance.