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TOPICS: Abstract Introduction WHAT IS ROVER? 1)The 70-m sub net 2)The 34-m HEF sub net 3)The 34-m BWG sub net 4)The 26-m sub net Arraying Full.Spectrum Arraying Of Receiving Radio Antennas Deep Space Communication Complexes Data Flow At The CONCLUSION .

succeeded in making the communication possible with the rovers landed on Mars. the deep space communication . In this paper titled ”AN EYE IN THE SKY (Communicating with rovers)” we will be dealing with antennas used in the DSN. The Deep Space Network (DSN) provides the two-way communications link that guides and controls spacecraft and brings back images and other scientific data they collect. The largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications system in the world. it also performs radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. NASA’s scientific investigations of the solar system are accomplished mainly through the use of robotic spacecraft. The Deep Space Network encompasses complexes strategically placed on three continents. It is managed and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).ABSTARCT: NASA’s Deep Space Network (DSN). the arraying of antennas. .

even though the planet's tenuous atmosphere would provide some shielding. Observations made last year show bombardments of solar radiation can last more than a week. . It still remains to be seen what the hazards are on the surface.INTRODUCTION: The radiation environment on the surface of Mars is unknown but probably poses a similar risk. The main worry for astronauts on Mars would be the periodic bursts of charged particles that stream outward from the sun. Without taking these risks NASA scientists. Presumably. succeeded in landing “Rovers” to continue their research on Mars. astronauts on Mars would have to remain confined in some sort of shelter during such blasts of radiation.

What is a Rover? A “ROVER” is nothing but a robot. The current mission to Mars involves a pair of robotic rovers that are known as the Mars Exploration Rovers(MER) 2. Fig1: SPIRIT ROVER LANDED ON MARS . It is TWO-WAY communication between Earth and space craft 3. Science information and "housekeeping" status data (telemetry) that are sent back to Earth on the "downlink. Coded instructions (commands) that are sent on the "uplink" to control the spacecraft's operating modes 4. 1.

34-M Sub net Diameter Antenna I)34-M HEF Subnet II) 34-M BWG Subnet c. Australia . There are three deep-spaces such communications facilities placed approximately 120 degrees apart around the world  Each location has an 8-hour to 14-hour viewing period for contact with a spacecraft  In a large parabolic reflector antennas and ultra sensitive receiving system PARABOLIC REFELECTOR ANTENNAS: a. 26-M Sub net Diameter Antenna •At Goldstone. 70-M Subnet Diameter Antenna b.How do we communicate with rovers: NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is a collection of antennas at three sites around the globe used to communicate with interplanetary spacecraft missions. in California's Mojave Desert •Near Madrid. Spain •Near Canberra.

strengthens reception of the spacecraft's weak signal. 2. or with a non-DSN radio telescope. it is necessary to alter the signal received by each antenna to make its delay and Doppler shift equal to delays and Doppler shifts of the similarly altered signals received by the other antenna . In order to achieve full-spectrum arraying.34-M HEF sub net Fig c) 34-M BWG Fig d). at two different DSCCs. Arraying means electronically combining the signals coming in from two or more DSSs.70-Msub net Fig b).Fig a). either at the same DSCC. This increases the effective aperture. and permits the spacecraft to be able to downlink data at a higher rate 3.26-M subnet Arraying: 1.


Full-Spectrum Arraying of Receiving Radio Antennas: Fig6: FULL SPECTRUM RECEIVER AND COMBINER .

into groups called subnets. Each DSS comprises a high gain. DSSs. loading and reprogramming its computers. for example the 70m subnet. The DSSs are divided. Each DSCC has following: A number of Deep Space Stations. and the 26m subnet. . the 34m subnet. and its associated front-end equipment such as low-noise amplifiers and transmitters. according to their aperture size.Deep Space Communication Complexes: The DSN's sophisticated Earth-based communications system at the DSCCs is an essential component for controlling a spacecraft's operating modes. and sending scientific data back to Earth. navigating it to its destination. parabolic-reflector steerable antenna dish.

 Administrative offices. .The signal processing center. With other DSSs. All the other components in this diagram belong to the DSCC microwave s/s. The SPC connects with all the DSSs at the DSCC. directing the RF into the basement where the rest of the equipment is located. a cafeteria. The blue arrow on the left indicates antenna control signals going to the DSS antenna equipment from the DSCC tracking s/s in the SPC. and a visitor center. Data Flow at the DSCC: Along this initial path is where the five reflectors of a BWG would be located. all the equipment in the first diagram is located in the feed horn and just below the reflector. where it all moves with the reflector as it tracks the spacecraft. SPC.

The function of the LNA is to amplify a band of RF while introducing an absolute minimum amount of noise. for example Xband. 7) RF at one frequency. also called a diachronic mirror.green line comes to a diachronic plate. (Shown in Fig. RCP. Some DSSs can also select Ka-band or other bands of RF. This might be right-hand circular polarization. or none. An amplified band of RF leaves the LNA and is directed to the receivers. passes through the plate. S and X in this example. while RF of another frequency. to the gold colored path below. for example S-band. DSN's masers are cooled with liquid helium to keep RF noise down. The RF of each band. or left-hand. LCP. Fig): DATA FLOW IN DSS . goes to a low-noise amplifier. reflects off to follow waveguides in another path colored blue. The desired polarization is selected using filters.

The ranging and Doppler data is passed to the navigators at JPL via the GCF. If there are telemetry symbols present on the downlink. If there are ranging symbols on the downlink. called transfer frames. In the DSCC tracking s/s the downlink's Doppler shift is measured and compared with the predicted Doppler shift. The open-loop receivers select a band of frequencies to amplify for further processing by RS or VLBI(Very Long Baseline Interferometry Data Type) equipment.The switches in the diagram show there's an operational choice. it can be decoded here or at JPL. MCD. Radio science equipment. that the spacecraft had grouped them into . If any other coding. controlled remotely from JPL. The difference is called the Doppler residuals. such as Reed-Solomon is present. indicated by the block at the bottom of the diagram. will typically output its high-volume data online for transmission to JPL via the GCF.The TLM data is then sent to JPL via the GCF. The assembly that does this is the maximumlikelihood convolutional decoder. they are processed within the DSCC t1elemetry s/s. VLBI equipment typically outputs data to tapes that are delivered to a correlator at a different location. they are processed within this subsystem as well. First they are Viterbi-decoded to recover data bits from the convolutionally coded symbol stream. The bits are then grouped into the same packages. .

Ka-band allows much more data transfer without the need for more ground antennas. So capabilities are under development to enable use of the Ka-band at frequencies as high as 31 to 35 gigahertz. which are very expensive to build .CONCLUSION: Research continues on ways to improve the communications capabilities of the DSN. Going to a higher frequency range than that currently in use would provide several benefits.