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# Mathematics

Permutation & Combination - 2
Session
Session Objectives
Session Objective
1. Combination
2. Circular Permutation
Combination
Combination ÷ Selection
Selection from a, b, c
Select one
Selection Rejection
a , b , c ,
b , a , c ,
c , a , b ,
Select two
Selection Rejection
a , b, c ,
b , c , a ,
c , a , b ,
No. of ways = 3
Combination
Select three
Selection Rejection
a, b, c
o
No. of ways = 1
Number of selection of some from a group.
= Number of rejection of remaining.
Combination
Number of ways of selecting a group of
two student out of four for a trip to Goa.
S
1
, S
2
, S
3
, S
4
Select two
Selection Rejection
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
1
S
3
S
2
S
4
S
1
S
4
S
2
S
3
S
2
S
3
S
1
S
4
S
2
S
4
S
1
S
3
S
3
S
4
S
1
S
2
6 ways.
Combination
Number of ways of selecting one group
Of two for Goa other for Agra
Combination
Selection and Arrangement of 3
alphabets from A, B, C, D.
Selection Arrangement Rejection
A, B, C, ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, CBA D
B, C, D, BCD, BDC, CBD, CDB, DBC, DCB A
=
4
3
x.3! P
4
4 4 4 3
3 1 (4 3)
P
4!
x C C C
3! 1!3!

÷ = = = = =
Combination
Number of distinct elements = n (1,2,3, .. n).
Ways of rejecting r =
n
C
r
Ways of rejecting rest (n ± r) elements
=
n
C
n-r
n
C
r
=
n
C
n-r
Particular selection
Total no. of arrangement =
n
C
r
.r! =
n
P
r
1,3, « r elements Arrangement r!
n
n
r
r
P n!
C
r! (n r)!r!
= =

n
n r
n! n!
r n r C
(n r)!r! n (n r) !(n r)!

÷ = =
¦
¸ |
n n
r n r
C C

÷ =
Questions
Illustrative Problem
There are 5 man and 6 woman. How
many way one can select
(a) A committee of 5 person.
(b) A committee of 5 which consist exactly 3 man.
(c) A committee of 5 persons which consist at least 3 man.
Solution :
Man ± 5 Woman ± 6 Total - 11
11
5
11!
(a) C
6!5!
=
5
3
6
2
(b) Select 3 man C
Select 2 women C
=
=
5 6
3 2
C C -
Solution Cont.
(c) At least ± 3 man
Man ± 5 Woman - 6
Composition of Committee
Case Man Woman
3 2
5
C
3
x
6
C
2
= 150
4 1
5
C
4
x
6
C
1
= 30
5 0
5
C
5
x
6
C
0
= 1
No. of Ways = 150 + 30+ 1 = 181.
Illustrative Problem
In how many ways, a committee of 4
person Can be selected out of 6 person
such that
(a) Mr. C is always there
(b) If A is there B must be there.
(c) A and B never be together.
Solution :
No. of persons - 6 Committee - 4
(a)Available persons ± 5
Persons to select - 3
Available persons ± 4
Persons to select - 2
Ways =
4
C
2
(b) Case ± 1 : µ A is there¶ ± µAB¶ in Committee.
Ways =
5
C
3
Solution Cont.
Case ± 2 ± µA is not there¶ ± B may
/may not be there
Available persons ± 5
Persons to select - 4
Ways =
5
C
4
No. of person - 6
Person to Select - 4
(c) µAB¶ never together = total no. of committee
- µAB¶ always together.
Total no. of committee =
6
C
4
.
µAB together in committee¶ =
4
C
2
@ No. of Ways =
6
C
4
±
4
C
2
= 9
Illustrative Problem
How many straight lines can be drawn
through 15 given points. when
(a) No. three are collinear
(b) Only five Points are collinear
Solution :
Through two given point and unique straight line
15
2
(a) C
(b) 5 point s Collinear
5
2
C distinct line Considered as one ÷ ÷
15 5
2 2
Number of Straight line C C 1 = +
Illustrative Problem
Find the number of 4 digit numbers
that can be formed by 3 distinct digits
among 1,2,3,4,5
Solution :-
No. of digits = 5
3
1
C
4!
2!
5 3
3 1
4!
No. of ways C C
2!
@ = - -
5 digit Select 3 distinct
Form 4 digit nos.
using these three
3 digit
Select one which
will repeat
Number of digits
formed.
5
C
3
Illustrative Problem
In how many ways 9 students can be
seated both sides of a table having 5
seat on each side (non-distinguishable)
Circular Permutation
A,B,C,D ± to be seated in a circular table
Total line arrangement = 4!
abcd dabc cdab bcda
a
b
c
d
1 circular arrangement
4 linear arrangement
4 linear Arrangement ÷ 1 circular arrangement
4 ! linear Arrangement ÷
No. of circular arrangement of n object = (n-1) !
4!
or (4 1)! circular arrangement.
4

Question
Illustrative Problem
In how many way 4 girls and 5 boys can
be seated around a circular table such that
(i) No. two girls sit together
(ii) All girls sit together
(iii) Only two girls sit together
Solution
(i) Boys ± 5 Girls ± 4
Boys (5 1)! 4! = =
Girls 5 4! = -
B
1
B
2
B
3
B
4
B
5
Solution Cont.
(ii) Boys ± 5 Girls ± 4
B
1
B
2
B
3 B
4
B
5
4!
G¶s
Solution Cont.
(iii) Boys ± 5 Girls ± 4
B
1
B
2
B
3
B
4
B
5
2!
G
2
G
1
G
3
G
4
Invertible Circular Arrangement
Ex :- Garland, Neck less.
Clockwise and anticlockwise arrangement
considered as same
(4 1)!
2
÷

For n objects.
No. of arrangement =
1
(n 1)!
2

A
C
D
B
C
D
B
Question
Illustrative Problem
I have ten different color stones. In
How many way I can make a ring of five
stones
Solution :
Stone - 10
Step 2 :- arrange circularly (Invertible)
Step 1 :- choose 5
10
5
C
1 1
(5 1)! 4!
2 2
= -
10
5
1
Ans : C 4!
2
-
Sum of Digits
Find the sum of all three digit numbers
formed by 1, 2 and 3
100
th
place 10
th
place Unit place
1 2
3
1 3
2
2 1
3
2 3
1
3 1
2
3 2
1
12 12
12
Sum of digits same (12)
Each digits is repeated
same no. of times
=2=(3-1) !
All digits comes equal
no. of times
Sum of digits in each column = (1+2+3) x 2! = 12
Sum of Digits
100
th
place
10
th
place
Unit place
a
b c
12 12
12
= 100a +10b +c
= 100x12 +10x12 + 12
= 12 (10
2
+ 10 + 1)
= 12 x 111 = 1332
(sum of all digits) x (No. of repetition in a
particular column) x (No. of 1¶s as number of
digits present in the number
Sum of all numbers =
Class Test
Class Exercise - 1
In how many ways can 5 boys and
5 girls be seated in a row so that no
2 girls are together and at least
2 boys are together?
Solution
First the boys can be seated in
5
p
5
= 5! ways.
Each arrangement will create six gaps:
__ B __ B __ B __ B __ B
If the girls are seated in the gaps, no 2 girls will be
together. Girls can be seated in the gaps in
6
p
5
= 6! ways.
But if the girls are in the first five or the last five gaps, no
2 boys will be together. So the girls can be seated in 6! ±
(5! + 5!) = 6! ± 2 × 5! = 4 × 5!
Solution contd..
Thus, total arrangements possible are 4 x (5!)
2
= 4 × 120 × 120
= 57600
Note: Under the given condition, more than 2
boys cannot sit together.
Class Exercise - 2
Find the sum of all numbers formed
using the digits 0, 2, 4, 7.
Solution
Required sum is
3 2
4 .13.1111 4 .13.111
¸ )
¸ )
¸ )
¸ )
n n 2
n 1 n 2
10 1 10 1
n .S. n .S.
10 1 10 1

¦

¦

¦

¦
¸ |
. J
2
4 .13 4444 111 =
= 16 × 13 × 4333
= 208 × 4333
= 901264
Class Exercise - 3
If all the letters of the word µSAHARA¶
are arranged as in the dictionary, what
is the 100th word?
Solution
Arranging the letters alphabetically, we
have A, A, A, H, R, S.
5!
60
2!
=
Number of words starting with A:
Number of words starting with H:
5!
20
3!
=
Number of words starting with R:
5!
20
3!
=
Thus, the last word starting with R will be the
100
th
word. This is clearly RSHAAA.
Class Exercise - 4
How many numbers can be formed
using the digits 3, 4, 5, 6, 5, 4, 3
such that the even digits occupy
the even places?
Solution
Even digits are 4, 6, 4.
These can be arranged in the even places in
ways = 3 ways.
3!
2!
Thus, the total number of ways = 3 × 6 = 18 ways.
The remaining digits: 3, 5, 5, 3 can be arranged
in the remaining places in ways.
4!
6
2! 2!
=
Class Exercise - 5
Ten couples are to be seated around
a table. In how many ways can they
be seated so that no two neighbours
are of the same gender?
Solution
Let all the members of one gender be
seated around the table. This can be done
in (10 ± 1)! ways. Once one gender is
seated, arrangement of other gender is no
longer a problem of circular permutation
(since the seats can be identified). Thus,
the second gender can be seated in 10!
ways.
Thus, total ways = 9! × 10!
Class Exercise - 6
In how many ways can 15 delegates
be seated around a pentagonal table
having 3 chairs at each edge?
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
15
I
2
3
4
5
6 7 8
9
10
11
12
13
14
If we consider the problem as one of circular permutations, the
answer is (15 ± 1)! = 14!
But we are considering the above two arrangements as same
while they are clearly different. All that has been done is that
all delegates have shifted one position. One move shift will also
give a new arrangement.
Solution contd..
Thus, we are counting three different arrangements as one.
Thus, number of actual arrangements possible = 3 × 14!
But after three shifts, the arrangement will be
which is identical to the original arrangement.
13
14
15
1
2
3
4 5 6
7
8
9
10
11
12
or , where 5 is the number of sides of regular polygon.
15!
5
Class Exercise - 7
Prove that the product of r consecutive
integers is divisible by r!
Solution
Let the r consecutive integers be
(n + 1), (n + 2), (n + 3), ..., (n + r)
Product = (n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) ... (n + r)
¸ )¸ )¸ ) ¸ )
n! n 1 n 2 n 3 ... n r
n!
+ + + +
=
¸ )
r
r
n r !
n P
n!
+
= = +
But
n+r
P
r
is an integer.
Thus, the product of r consecutive integers is divisible by r!
(Proved)
Class Exercise - 8
If
find the values of n and r.
n n n n
r r 1 r r 1
p p and C C ,
+
= =
Solution
n n
r r 1
p p
+
=
¸ ) ¸ )
n! n!
n r ! n r 1 !
@ =

n r 1 @ =
n n
r r 1
Also C C

=
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
n! n!
n r ! r! n r 1 ! r 1 !
@ =
+
¸ ) ¸ ) ¸ )
n! n!
n r ! r! n r 1 ! r 1 !
@ =
+
r 2, n 3 @ = =
Class Exercise - 9
A person wishes to make up as many
parties as he can out of his 18 friends
such that each party consists of the
same numbers of persons. How many
friends should he invite?
Solution
Let the person invite r friends. This can
be done in
18
C
r
ways. To maximise the
number of parties, we have to take the
largest value of
18
C
r
. When n is even,
n
C
r
will be maximum when r= n/2.
Thus, he should invite 18/2 = 9 friends.
Class Exercise - 10
In how many ways can a cricket team
of 5 batsmen, 3 all-rounders, 2 bowlers
and 1 wicket keeper be selected from
19 players including 7 batsmen,
6 all-rounders, 3 bowlers and
3 wicket keepers?
Solution
The batsmen can be selected in
7
C
5
= 21 ways.
The all-rounders can be selected in
6
C
3
= 20 ways.
The bowlers can be selected in
3
C
2
= 3 ways.
The wicketkeeper can be selected in
3
C
1
= 3 ways.
Thus, the total ways of selecting the team
= 21 × 20 × 3 × 3 = 3780 ways.
Note:
7 7
5 2
7.6
C C 21
2.1
= = =
Class Exercise - 11
In how many ways can we select one
or more items out of a, a, a, b, c, d, e?
Solution
We can select µa¶s in 0 or 1 or 2 or 3, i.e. in 4
ways.
We can select µb¶ in 2 ways, i.e. either we
select it or we do not select it and so on.
The required number of ways in which
we can select one or more items is
(3 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) ± 1
@
4
4.2 1 63 ways. = =
Class Exercise - 12
In how many ways can we divide
10 persons
(i) into groups of 5 each,
(ii) (ii) into groups of 4, 4 and 2?
Solution
10
5
C
(i)
2!
We have divided by 2!, because if we interchange persons
in group one, with persons in group two, the division is
not different, i.e.
group 1 group 2 group 2 group 1
abdfj ceghi ceghi abdfj
10 6 2
4 4 2
C . C . C 10! 1
(ii)
2! 4! 4! 2! 2!
= -
Thank you

Session

Permutation & Combination - 2

Session Objectives

Session Objective
1. 2. Combination Circular Permutation

Combination
Combination | Selection Selection from a, b, c Selection a, b, c, Selection a , b, b,c, c,a, Rejection b,c, a,c, a,b, Rejection c, a, b,

Select one

Select two

No. of ways = 3

of ways = 1 Number of selection of some from a group. c Rejection J No. b. = Number of rejection of remaining.Combination Selection Select three a. .

Combination Number of ways of selecting a group of two student out of four for a trip to Goa. S 1. S 2. S1 S2 S1 S3 Select two S1 S4 S2 S3 S2 S4 S3 S4 S 4 Selection Rejection S3 S4 S2 S4 S2 S3 S1 S4 S1 S3 S1 S2 6 ways. S 3. .

Combination Number of ways of selecting one group Of two for Goa other for Agra .

BAC. B. A. A. CBD. CDB.Combination Selection and Arrangement of 3 alphabets from A. DCB ACD. D. C. C. B. ADB. CDA. C. B. Arrangement ABC. DCA Rejection D C A B 4 . CAB. D. B. BDC. D. BDA. ADC. DBA BCD. DAB. BAD. C. x. CBA ABD. CAD.3! ! 4 P3 P3 4!  x! ! ! 4 C3 ! 4 C1 ! 4 C(4  3) 3! 1!3! Selection A. DAC. D. BCA. DBC. ACB.

2.. « r elements Total no. .3.Combination Number of distinct elements = n (1. Ways of rejecting r = nCr Ways of rejecting rest (n ± r) elements = nCn-r nC = nC r n-r Particular selection 1.3. n).r! = nPr n n Arrangement r! Cr ! Pr n! ! r! (n  r)!r ! n r pnr Cn  r !   n Cr ! n Cn r n! n! ! «n  (n  r)» !(n  r)! (n  r)!r! ­ ½ . of arrangement = nCr.

Questions .

Solution : Man ± 5 Woman ± 6 Total . How many way one can select (a) A committee of 5 person.11 (a) 11 11! C5 ! 6!5! ! 5 C3 5 (b) Select 3 man Select 2 women ! 6 C2 C3 v 6 C2 . (b) A committee of 5 which consist exactly 3 man.Illustrative Problem There are 5 man and 6 woman. (c) A committee of 5 persons which consist at least 3 man.

of Ways = 150 + 30+ 1 = 181.6 Composition of Committee Case Man Woman 3 2 4 5 1 0 5C 3 5C 4 5C 5 x 6C2 = 150 x 6C1 = 30 x 6C0 = 1 No.Solution Cont. (c) At least ± 3 man Man ± 5 Woman . .

Illustrative Problem In how many ways. Available persons ± 4 Ways = 4C2 Persons to select . a committee of 4 person Can be selected out of 6 person such that (a) Mr.6 Committee .3 (b) Case ± 1 : µ A is there¶ ± µAB¶ in Committee. (c) A and B never be together.2 . Solution : No. of persons .4 (a) Available persons ± 5 Ways = 5C3 Persons to select . C is always there (b) If A is there B must be there.

Solution Cont.6 Person to Select .µAB¶ always together. µAB together in committee¶ = 4C2 @ No. of committee = 6C4 . of committee .4 (c) µAB¶ never together = total no.4 No. of person . Total no. Case ± 2 ± µA is not there¶ ± B may /may not be there Available persons ± 5 Ways = 5C4 Persons to select . of Ways = 6C4 ± 4C2 = 9 .

Illustrative Problem How many straight lines can be drawn through 15 given points. three are collinear (b) Only five Points are collinear Solution : Through two given point and unique straight line (a) 15 C2 (b) 5 po int s Collinear | 5 C2 distinct line p Considered as one Number of Straight line ! 15 C2  5 C2  1 . when (a) No.

5 Solution :.2. C1 5 3 4! @ No.3. of ways ! C3 v C1 v 2! 4! 2! . of digits = 5 Form 4 digit nos. using these three 5 digit Select 3 distinct 5C 3 3 digit Select one which will repeat 3 Number of digits formed.Illustrative Problem Find the number of 4 digit numbers that can be formed by 3 distinct digits among 1.4.No.

Illustrative Problem In how many ways 9 students can be seated both sides of a table having 5 seat on each side (non-distinguishable) .

Circular Permutation A.C. of circular arrangement of n object = (n-1) ! .D ± to be seated in a circular table Total line arrangement = 4! abcd dabc cdab a bcda 4 linear arrangement d b 1 circular arrangement c 4 linear Arrangement | 1 circular arrangement 4 ! linear Arrangement | 4! or (4  1)! circular arrangement. 4 No.B.

Question .

Illustrative Problem In how many way 4 girls and 5 boys can be seated around a circular table such that (i) No. two girls sit together (ii) All girls sit together (iii) Only two girls sit together .

Solution (i) Boys ± 5 Girls ± 4 B1 B2 B5 B3 B4 Boys ! (5  1)! ! 4! Girls ! 5 v 4! .

Solution Cont. (ii) Boys ± 5 Girls ± 4 G¶s 4! B1 B5 B3 B2 B4 .

(iii) Boys ± 5 Girls ± 4 2! G3G4 B1 B2 B5 G2 B4 G1 B3 .Solution Cont.

Neck less. Clockwise and anticlockwise arrangement considered as same B B C D For n objects.Garland. of arrangement = (n  1)! 2 A D C ABCD | ADCB (4  1)! 2 .Invertible Circular Arrangement Ex :. 1 No.

Question .

choose 5 10 C5 Step 2 :.Illustrative Problem I have ten different color stones.10 Step 1 :.arrange circularly (Invertible) 1 1 (5  1)! ! v 4! 2 2 Ans :  10 1 C5 v 4! 2 . In How many way I can make a ring of five stones Solution : Stone .

of times Sum of digits in each column = (1+2+3) x 2! = 12 .Sum of Digits Find the sum of all three digit numbers formed by 1. of times =2=(3-1) ! All digits comes equal no. 2 and 3 100th place 10th place Unit place 1 1 2 2 3 3 12 2 3 1 3 1 2 12 3 2 3 1 2 1 12 Sum of digits same (12) Each digits is repeated same no.

of repetition in a particular column) x (No. of 1¶s as number of digits present in the number .Sum of Digits 100th place 10th place Unit place a 12 b 12 c 12 = 100a +10b +c = 100x12 +10x12 + 12 = 12 (102 + 10 + 1) = 12 x 111 = 1332 Sum of all numbers = (sum of all digits) x (No.

Class Test .

1 In how many ways can 5 boys and 5 girls be seated in a row so that no 2 girls are together and at least 2 boys are together? .Class Exercise .

Solution First the boys can be seated in 5p5 = 5! ways. Girls can be seated in the gaps in 6p5 = 6! ways. But if the girls are in the first five or the last five gaps. no 2 girls will be together. So the girls can be seated in 6! ± (5! + 5!) = 6! ± 2 × 5! = 4 × 5! . no 2 boys will be together. Each arrangement will create six gaps: __ B __ B __ B __ B __ B If the girls are seated in the gaps.

.. more than 2 boys cannot sit together.Solution contd. Thus. total arrangements possible are 4 x (5!)2 = 4 × 120 × 120 = 57600 Note: Under the given condition.

2. .Class Exercise .2 Find the sum of all numbers formed using the digits 0. 7. 4.

13.S.S.111 « 10n  1 10n  2  1 ¬nn 1. ¬ .Solution Required sum is 43.1111  42.  nn  2 .13.

10  1 .

10  1 ¬ ­ .

.

» ¼ ¼ ¼ ½ ! 42.13 ?4444  111A = 16 × 13 × 4333 = 208 × 4333 = 901264 .

what is the 100th word? .Class Exercise .3 If all the letters of the word µSAHARA¶ are arranged as in the dictionary.

5! Number of words starting with A: ! 60 2! 5! ! 20 Number of words starting with H: 3! 5! ! 20 Number of words starting with R: 3! Thus. we have A. This is clearly RSHAAA. S. H. R. A.Solution Arranging the letters alphabetically. A. the last word starting with R will be the 100th word. .

Class Exercise . 5. 6. 4. 4. 5.4 How many numbers can be formed using the digits 3. 3 such that the even digits occupy the even places? .

in the remaining places in 2! 2! Thus. These can be arranged in the even places in 3! ways = 3 ways. .Solution Even digits are 4. 4. 5. 5. 2! The remaining digits: 3. 6. the total number of ways = 3 × 6 = 18 ways. 3 can be arranged 4! ! 6 ways.

In how many ways can they be seated so that no two neighbours are of the same gender? .Class Exercise .5 Ten couples are to be seated around a table.

total ways = 9! × 10! .Solution Let all the members of one gender be seated around the table. the second gender can be seated in 10! ways. Thus. arrangement of other gender is no longer a problem of circular permutation (since the seats can be identified). Once one gender is seated. Thus. This can be done in (10 ± 1)! ways.

6 In how many ways can 15 delegates be seated around a pentagonal table having 3 chairs at each edge? .Class Exercise .

One move shift will also give a new arrangement. the answer is (15 ± 1)! = 14! But we are considering the above two arrangements as same while they are clearly different. All that has been done is that all delegates have shifted one position.Solution 14 13 12 11 5 10 9 8 7 9 6 8 7 6 5 15 1 2 3 4 11 10 4 12 13 14 15 I 2 3 If we consider the problem as one of circular permutations. .

we are counting three different arrangements as one. But after three shifts.Solution contd. Thus. the arrangement will be 11 10 9 8 2 7 6 5 4 3 12 13 14 15 1 which is identical to the original arrangement. where 5 is the number of sides of regular polygon. 5 . number of actual arrangements possible = 3 × 14! or 15! . Thus..

Class Exercise .7 Prove that the product of r consecutive integers is divisible by r! .

(n + 3).. (n + 2).Solution Let the r consecutive integers be (n + 1)... . (n + r) ! n! ... (n + r) Product = (n + 1)(n + 2)(n + 3) .

n  1 .

n  2 .

.n  3 ...

n  r n! r .

Thus. the product of r consecutive integers is divisible by r! (Proved) .n  r ! ! n  r P ! n! But n+rP r is an integer.

. r r 1 find the values of n and r.Class Exercise .8 If n p ! np and nCr ! nCr 1.

Solution n pr ! npr 1 n! n! @ ! @n  r ! 1 n  r ! .

n  r  1 ! .

Also nCr ! nCr 1 n! n! @ ! .

n  r ! r! .

n  r  1 ! .

r  1 ! n! n! @ ! .

n  r ! r! .

n  r  1 ! .

r  1 ! @ r ! 2. n ! 3 .

How many friends should he invite? .9 A person wishes to make up as many parties as he can out of his 18 friends such that each party consists of the same numbers of persons.Class Exercise .

Solution Let the person invite r friends. he should invite 18/2 = 9 friends. When n is even. . This can be done in 18Cr ways. nC will be maximum when r= n/2. r Thus. To maximise the number of parties. we have to take the largest value of 18Cr.

Class Exercise . 3 bowlers and 3 wicket keepers? . 6 all-rounders.10 In how many ways can a cricket team of 5 batsmen. 3 all-rounders. 2 bowlers and 1 wicket keeper be selected from 19 players including 7 batsmen.

Thus. the total ways of selecting the team = 21 × 20 × 3 × 3 = 3780 ways.Solution The batsmen can be selected in 7C5 = 21 ways.1 . 7. The bowlers can be selected in 3C2 = 3 ways. The all-rounders can be selected in 6C3 = 20 ways.6 Note: 7 C5 ! 7C2 ! ! 21 2. The wicketkeeper can be selected in 3C1 = 3 ways.

e? . a.Class Exercise . a. b. c.11 In how many ways can we select one or more items out of a. d.

@ The required number of ways in which we can select one or more items is (3 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1)(1 + 1) ± 1 ! 4. either we select it or we do not select it and so on. i. in 4 ways.e.e. i.Solution We can select µa¶s in 0 or 1 or 2 or 3.24  1 ! 63 ways. . We can select µb¶ in 2 ways.

Class Exercise . (ii) (ii) into groups of 4.12 In how many ways can we divide 10 persons (i) into groups of 5 each. 4 and 2? .

with persons in group two.2 C2 10! 1 ! v 2! 4! 4! 2! 2! . the division is not different.Solution C5 (i) 2! We have divided by 2!. i. because if we interchange persons in group one.6 C4 .e. group 1 abdfj 10 10 group 2 ceghi group 2 ceghi group 1 abdfj (ii) C4 .

Thank you .