for Link Level Simulations
NOT for distribution, confidential
1
Outline
Why need spatial channel model (SCM)
Correlation based Implementation of SCM
Examples of Correlation Matrices by 3GPP
Some Basics on Array Signal Processing
Properties of Old Correlation Matrices
Channel model by 3GPP3GPP2 AHG
Introduce more spatial parameters for BS and UE
Future plan
NOT for distribution, confidential
2
Channel Models for Multiple Antennas
The spatial properties of channels are extremely
important in determining the performance of multiple
antenna systems
Diversity scheme may correspond to its own channel model
Need to consider
Time delay spread
Angular spread
Adaptive array antenna geometries
Angular spread depends on
Local scattering environment
Antenna heights
Time variability of spatial channel is the function of UE
speed. (movement)
NOT for distribution, confidential
3
Properties of Spatial Correlation
Lower correlation with
Larger angular spread
Larger element spacing
To get low correlation
UE: 0.2 wavelength due to the larger angular spread
BS: 40 wavelength due to the small angular spread
Assumptions:
Longterm properties of the channel remain
unchanged over time (timeinvariant)
It is a slow varying effect similar to shadow fading
Independence between different taps
NOT for distribution, confidential
4
SCM Generation Method
Spatially correlated multiple channels can be
generated by the linear transformation of the
same number of uncorrelated channels
(t) g T (t) h
· =
H
T T R · =
Correlation matrix:
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(t) g
(t) g
(t) g
(t) g
L
2
1
Uncorrelated channels:
NOT for distribution, confidential
5
Block Diagram for SCM Generation
Multiple
channel
generation
Linear
transformation
with T
) (
1
t g
) (
1
t h
) (t g
L
) (
2
t g
) (t h
L
) (
2
t h
Matrix square
root
computation
T
H
T T R · =
Spatial correlation
coefficients
(t) g t (t) h
L
1 j
j ij i ¿
=
· =
NOT for distribution, confidential
6
Alternative Implementation
for Rx Diversity Simulations
When spatial covariance matrices are equal for
each tap
Equivalent simulation method without change
the channel impulse responses by transformation
of
Received signal before AWGN
Antenna weight
w T v and
r
r
r
T
s
s
s
L
2
1
L
2
1
· =
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
· =
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
NOT for distribution, confidential
7
Examples of Spatial Correlation Matrix
Spatial correlation matrix for 4 antenna case
Spatially uncorrelated channels: a=b=c=0
Recommended correlation coefficients
[TSGR1#17(00)1358]
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
1 * a * b * c
a 1 * a * b
b a 1 * a
c b a 1
R
NOT for distribution, confidential
8
Recommended Correlation Parameters
[TSGR1#17(00)1358]
Environment Parameters
Recommended path
model
Angular spread
Macro cell
(Rural area)
a=0.97 exp(0.8 j)
b=0.94 exp(1.6 j)
c=0.88 exp(2.4 j)
1path Rayleigh
Vehicular A
10° AS
15° AoA
Micro cell
(Urban area)
a=0.7 exp(2.2 j)
b=0.1 exp(1.2 j)
c=0.2 exp(3.0 j)
Pedestrian A
45° AS
60° AoA
Pico cell or
uncorrelated
a, b, c = 0 Pedestrian A
Large angular
spread
NOT for distribution, confidential
9
What Next?
Rx or Tx Diversity schemes have been simulated with
those correlation matrices.
Is it Reliable? Reasonable? Enough?
Need verification of the recommended SCM
Need some basics of array signal processing
Rx signal model to array antenna
Steering vector
Power Spectrum Density (PSD)
Eigenbeam pattern
NOT for distribution, confidential
10
Received Signal Model
( ) (t) n θ a s(t)
(t) n α s(t)
(t) n α s(t)
(t) n α s(t)
(t) n s(t)
(t) r
L 1  L
3 2
2 1
1
+ · =
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+ ·
+ ·
+ ·
+
=
Steering vector is the function of AOA
dependent on the antenna geometry
A
o
A
n
u
0 = u
Node B
s(t)
Rx signal with coherent assumption
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
1  L
1
α
α
1
θ a
NOT for distribution, confidential
11
Steering Vector of Uniform Linear Array
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
· =
÷1
2
1
1
L
L
a
o
o
o
u
( ) u t o sin
~
2 exp d j =
Phase Difference
between two
adjacent antenna
Steering vector of ULA:
u
Plane wave
) sin(u d
Boresight
AoA
NOT for distribution, confidential
12
Discrete Uniform Distribution Model
A
o
A
o
n
u
0 = u
Node B
UE
( ) (t) n θ a
1 Q
1
s(t) (t) r
Q
0 q
q
+
(
¸
(
¸
+
· =
¿
=
Angle of subpaths:
( ) ( )
H
Q
0 q
q q
θ a θ a
1) (Q
1
R
¿
=
· ·
+
=
σ
2
1
Q
q
θ θ
q
·


.

\

÷ + =
Correlation Matrix:
Rx Signal:
NOT for distribution, confidential
13
More Basic Definitions
( ) ( ) ( ) θ a R θ a θ P
H
1
· · =
Power Spectrum Density
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) θ a w w θ a
w θ a θ P
H
H
2
H
2
· · · =
· =
Beam pattern of antenna weight
( ) ( ) ( )
H
L L L
H
2 2 2
H
1 1 1
w w λ w w λ w w λ R
+ + + =
Eigenvalue decomposition
NOT for distribution, confidential
14
80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80
20
10
0
10
Angular PSD of correlation matrix
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80
30
20
10
0
Dominant Eigenbeam Pattern
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
PSD of Macro Cell Model: 70 AoA, 10 AS
Longterm average power
profile according to
angle
Beam pattern of the
dominant eigenvector
Dominant eigenvector is
associated with 99.9%
power
AoA is around 15°
AS = 10°
NOT for distribution, confidential
15
50 0 50
40
30
20
10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
Dominent Eigenbeam Pattern
50 0 50
40
30
20
10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
2nd Eigenbeam Pattern
50 0 50
40
30
20
10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
3rd Eigenbeam Pattern
50 0 50
40
30
20
10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
4th Eigenbeam Pattern
Eigenbeam Patterns of Macro Model
0 % 0 %
99.9%
0.1%
NOT for distribution, confidential
16
80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80
30
20
10
0
10
Angular PSD of correlation matrix
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80
40
30
20
10
0
Angular PSD of dominant eigenvector
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
PSD of Micro Cell Model: 60 AoA, 45 AS
Dominant eigenvector is
associated with 57%
of total power
60 AoA
45 AS
NOT for distribution, confidential
17
50 0 50
40
30
20
10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
Dominent Eigenbeam Pattern
50 0 50
40
30
20
10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
2nd Eigenbeam Pattern
50 0 50
40
30
20
10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
3rd Eigenbeam Pattern
50 0 50
40
30
20
10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n
(
d
B
)
4th Eigenbeam Pattern
Eigenbeam Patterns of Micro Cell
0.4 % 3.7 %
57.2%
38.7%
NOT for distribution, confidential
18
Need Common Correlation Model
Very limited simulation environments can be
considered
Eigenbeamformer scheme has adopted this spatial
channel model
Uniformly distributed power on an angular region
Common & more reliable simulation spatial
channel model is required
Need specific descriptions of more channel
parameters, AOA, PAS, AS, etc
NOT for distribution, confidential
19
Spatial Channel Model by AHG
Text description: SCM077 11/2002
Recommended to use MIMO physical layer channel
model proposed
SCM AHG (AH62) from 3GPP & 3GPP2
Develop and specify parameters and methods
associated with
Link level spatial channel model
For calibration only
System level spatial channel model
Define physical parameters and system evaluation
methodology
NOT for distribution, confidential
20
Link level channel model
Developed and specified by 3GPP3GPP2 SCM AH
Only for calibration purposes
Reflect only one snapshot of the channel behavior
Do not account for system attributes such as
scheduling and HARQ
Only for comparison of performance results from
different implementation of a given algorithm
Status: 95% completed
Distribution is not defined yet
NOT for distribution, confidential
21
System level channel model
Required for the final algorithm comparison
Define the methodology for generating the
spatial channel coefficients between BS and MS
95% completed
Will not be covered here but later
NOT for distribution, confidential
22
Terminologies
MS = UE = terminal
= subscriber unit
BS = NodeB = BTS
AS = angle spread
= azimuth spread
Path = Ray
Path component
= Subray
PAS = power azimuth
spectrum
DoT = direction of travel
AoA = angle of arrival
AoD = angle of departure
PDP = power delay profile
A
o
A
o
n
u
0 = u
BS
UE
D
o
T
NOT for distribution, confidential
23
Parameters of Link Level SCM
Model Case I Case II Case III Case IV
3GPP Case B Case C Case D Case A
3GPP2 Model A, D, E Model C Model B Model F
PDP Mod. Pedestrian A Vehicular A Pedestrian B Single path
Speed (Km/h)
1) 3
2) 30, 120
3, 30, 120 3, 30, 120 3
# of paths
1) 4 + 1 (LOS on, K=6 dB)
2) 4 (LOS off)
6 6 1
Relative path
power (dB)
& Delay (ns)
LOS on
0.0
6.51
16.21
25.71
29.31
LOS off
–Inf
0.0
9.7
19.2
22.8
0
0
110
190
410
0.0
1.0
9.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
0
310
710
1090
1730
2510
0.0
0.9
4.9
8.0
7.8
23.9
0
200
800
1200
2300
3700
0 0
Multipath fading propagation conditions
NOT for distribution, confidential
24
Parameters of Link Level SCM…
Model Case I Case II Case III Case IV
Topology Reference: ULA with 0.5, 4, 10 spacing N/A
PAS
Laplacian distribution with
RMS angle spread of 2 or 5 degrees per path
depending on AoA/AoD
N/A
AoD/AoA
(degrees)
50 for 2 RMS AS per path
20 for 5 RMS AS per path
N/A
Antenna gain
pattern
3 or 6 sector antenna pattern
(For diversity oriented applications rather than beamforming applications)
Spatial parameters for NodeB
NOT for distribution, confidential
25
Parameters of Link Level SCM…
Model Case I Case II Case III Case IV
Topology Reference 0.5 N/A
PAS
1) LOS on: Fixed AoA for
LOS component, remaining
power has 360 degree
uniform PAS. ( RMS angle
spread of 104 degrees)
2) LOS off: Laplacian
distribution with RMS angle
spread of 35 degrees per
path
Laplacian distribution
with RMS angle
spread of 35 degrees
per path
OR
360 degree uniform
PAS ( RMS angle
spread of 104
degrees)
Laplacian distribution
with RMS angle
spread of 35 degrees
per path
N/A
DoT
(degrees)
0 22.5 22.5 N/A
AoA
(degrees)
22.5 (LOS component)
67.5 (all other paths)
67.5 (all paths)
22.5 (odd paths)
67.5 (even paths)
N/A
Antenna gain
pattern
Omni directional with 1 dBi gain
Spatial parameters for UE
NOT for distribution, confidential
26
Assumptions of Link Level SCM
Spatial channel parameters per path
Each resolvable path is characterized by spatial
channel parameters: AS, AoA, PAS
All paths are assumed independent
Array Topologies
Allow any type of antenna configuration, but must be
shared to reproduce and verify the results
ULA with element spacing of 0.5, 4, 10 wavelengths
NOT for distribution, confidential
27
Antenna Gain Patterns
UE: 1 dBi gain omnidirection
Node B uplink/downlink
Only for diversity oriented implementations (large spacing)
Need different antenna patterns for beamforming applications
3 sector cell
Bandwidth 70°, Maximum attenuation 20 dB, 14 dBi gain
6 sector cell
Bandwidth 35°, Maximum attenuation 23 dB, 17 dBi gain
Sector antenna formula in dB scale
( ) 180 θ 180 , A ,
θ
θ
12 min θ A
m
3dB
< < ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦


.

\

· =
NOT for distribution, confidential
28
Sector Antenna Patterns at NodeB
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
25
20
15
10
5
0
Antenna Pattern for 3 sector cell
Azimuth in Degrees
G
a
i
n
i
n
d
B
BW = 70 degree BW = 70 degree
maximum attenuation (Am)
3 sector antenna pattern
NOT for distribution, confidential
29
Sector Antenna Patterns at NodeB…
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
25
20
15
10
5
0
Antenna Pattern for 6 sector cell
Azimuth in Degrees
G
a
i
n
i
n
d
B
BW = 35 degree BW = 35 degree
maximum attenuation (Am)
6 sector antenna pattern
NOT for distribution, confidential
30
Average Received Power
( ) ( ) θ G
σ
θ θ 2
exp N θ P
0
·
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ · ÷
· =
( )dθ θ P N
π
π
1
0
}
÷
÷
=
( )
( )/10 θ A
10 θ G =
Laplacian distributed PAS
Normalization factor
Gain pattern in linear scale
θ Angle of Arrival
    θ E θ E σ
2 2
÷ =
RMS angle spread
NOT for distribution, confidential
31
Average Received Power at NodeB
50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Avaerage received power
Angle (degree)
P
A
S
v
a
l
u
e
P
(
u
)
3 sectored antenna with AoA = 20 and RMS AS = 5
NOT for distribution, confidential
32
Average Received Power at UE
Laplacian distributed PAS with omnidirectional gain
( ) 1 θ G =
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ · ÷
· =
σ
θ θ 2
exp N θ P
0
NOT for distribution, confidential
33
Average Received Power at UE…
22.5 AoA & 35 RMS AS
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.02
Avaerage received power
Angle (degree)
P
A
S
v
a
l
u
e
P
(
u
)
NOT for distribution, confidential
34
Average Received Power at UE…
22.5 AoA & 104 RMS AS (uniform over 360 degree PAS)
150 100 50 0 50 100 150
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
x 10
3
Avaerage received power
Angle (degree)
P
A
S
v
a
l
u
e
P
(
u
)
NOT for distribution, confidential
35
Doppler Spectrum at UE
Dependent on
DoT
PAS
AoA
A
o
A
o
n
u
0 = u
BS
UE
D
o
T
NOT for distribution, confidential
36
Generation of link level channel model
Average received power
Angle theta represents path components
Its distribution is TBD
Uniformly distribution over [180 180] degrees
Channel implementation techniques
Correlation based
Ray based
Details are TBD
Reference correlation values are provided
Nokia to provide formulas for computing correlation
matrices
NOT for distribution, confidential
37
Future Plan
Linklevel SCM generation and verification
MatLab, SPW, etc
Continual study of systemlevel models
Using these models for performance testing in
various development projects (TDD, FDD, EVDV,
TDSCDMA)
NOT for distribution, confidential
38
References
Old 3GPP Model:
TSGR1#14(00)0867
TSGR1#15(00)1067
TSGR1#16(00)1187
TSGR1#17(00)1358
Tx Div Model:
TSGR1#26(02)
0765, 770
TSGR1#29(02)
1139,1419,1440
1441 (TR25.869)
MIMO Model:
TSGR1#22(01)1132
TSGR1#22(01)1136
TSGR1#23(01)1179
TSGR1(02)0141
SCM077,
November 2002
by 3GPP3GPP2