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Spatial Channel Model

for Link Level Simulations
NOT for distribution, confidential
1
Outline
 Why need spatial channel model (SCM)
 Correlation based Implementation of SCM
 Examples of Correlation Matrices by 3GPP
 Some Basics on Array Signal Processing
 Properties of Old Correlation Matrices
 Channel model by 3GPP-3GPP2 AHG
 Introduce more spatial parameters for BS and UE
 Future plan
NOT for distribution, confidential
2
Channel Models for Multiple Antennas
 The spatial properties of channels are extremely
important in determining the performance of multiple
antenna systems
 Diversity scheme may correspond to its own channel model
 Need to consider
 Time delay spread
 Angular spread
 Adaptive array antenna geometries
 Angular spread depends on
 Local scattering environment
 Antenna heights
 Time variability of spatial channel is the function of UE
speed. (movement)
NOT for distribution, confidential
3
Properties of Spatial Correlation
 Lower correlation with
 Larger angular spread
 Larger element spacing
 To get low correlation
 UE: 0.2 wavelength due to the larger angular spread
 BS: 40 wavelength due to the small angular spread
 Assumptions:
 Long-term properties of the channel remain
unchanged over time (time-invariant)
 It is a slow varying effect similar to shadow fading
 Independence between different taps
NOT for distribution, confidential
4
SCM Generation Method
 Spatially correlated multiple channels can be
generated by the linear transformation of the
same number of uncorrelated channels
(t) g T (t) h


· =
H
T T R · =
Correlation matrix:
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(t) g
(t) g
(t) g
(t) g
L
2
1


Uncorrelated channels:
NOT for distribution, confidential
5
Block Diagram for SCM Generation
Multiple
channel
generation
Linear
transformation
with T
) (
1
t g
) (
1
t h
) (t g
L
) (
2
t g
) (t h
L
) (
2
t h
Matrix square
root
computation
T
H
T T R · =
Spatial correlation
coefficients
(t) g t (t) h
L
1 j
j ij i ¿
=
· =
NOT for distribution, confidential
6
Alternative Implementation
for Rx Diversity Simulations
 When spatial covariance matrices are equal for
each tap
 Equivalent simulation method without change
the channel impulse responses by transformation
of
 Received signal before AWGN
 Antenna weight
w T v and
r
r
r
T
s
s
s
L
2
1
L
2
1
 








· =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

· =
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

NOT for distribution, confidential
7
Examples of Spatial Correlation Matrix
 Spatial correlation matrix for 4 antenna case
 Spatially uncorrelated channels: a=b=c=0
 Recommended correlation coefficients
[TSGR1#17(00)1358]
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
1 * a * b * c
a 1 * a * b
b a 1 * a
c b a 1
R
NOT for distribution, confidential
8
Recommended Correlation Parameters
[TSGR1#17(00)1358]
Environment Parameters
Recommended path
model
Angular spread
Macro cell
(Rural area)
a=0.97 exp(-0.8 j)
b=0.94 exp(-1.6 j)
c=0.88 exp(-2.4 j)
1-path Rayleigh

Vehicular A
10° AS
15° AoA
Micro cell
(Urban area)
a=0.7 exp(-2.2 j)
b=0.1 exp(-1.2 j)
c=0.2 exp(-3.0 j)
Pedestrian A
45° AS
60° AoA
Pico cell or
uncorrelated
a, b, c = 0 Pedestrian A
Large angular
spread
NOT for distribution, confidential
9
What Next?
 Rx or Tx Diversity schemes have been simulated with
those correlation matrices.

 Is it Reliable? Reasonable? Enough?
 Need verification of the recommended SCM

 Need some basics of array signal processing
 Rx signal model to array antenna
 Steering vector
 Power Spectrum Density (PSD)
 Eigenbeam pattern
NOT for distribution, confidential
10
Received Signal Model
( ) (t) n θ a s(t)
(t) n α s(t)
(t) n α s(t)
(t) n α s(t)
(t) n s(t)
(t) r
L 1 - L
3 2
2 1
1
 


+ · =
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ·
+ ·
+ ·
+
=
Steering vector is the function of AOA
dependent on the antenna geometry
A
o
A
n
u
0 = u
Node B
s(t)
Rx signal with coherent assumption
( )
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
1 - L
1
α
α
1
θ a


NOT for distribution, confidential
11
Steering Vector of Uniform Linear Array
( )
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

· =
÷1
2
1
1
L
L
a
o
o
o
u


( ) u t o sin
~
2 exp d j =
Phase Difference
between two
adjacent antenna
Steering vector of ULA:
u
Plane wave
) sin(u d
Boresight
AoA
NOT for distribution, confidential
12
Discrete Uniform Distribution Model
A
o
A
o
n
u
0 = u
Node B
UE
( ) (t) n θ a
1 Q
1
s(t) (t) r
Q
0 q
q
  
+
(
¸
(

¸

+
· =
¿
=
Angle of sub-paths:
( ) ( )
H
Q
0 q
q q
θ a θ a
1) (Q
1
R
¿
=
· ·
+
=
 
σ
2
1
Q
q
θ θ
q
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + =
Correlation Matrix:
Rx Signal:
NOT for distribution, confidential
13
More Basic Definitions
( ) ( ) ( ) θ a R θ a θ P
H
1
 
· · =
 Power Spectrum Density
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) θ a w w θ a
w θ a θ P
H
H
2
H
2
   
 
· · · =
· =
 Beam pattern of antenna weight
( ) ( ) ( )
H
L L L
H
2 2 2
H
1 1 1
w w λ w w λ w w λ R
 

   
+ + + =
 Eigenvalue decomposition
NOT for distribution, confidential
14
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-20
-10
0
10
Angular PSD of correlation matrix
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-30
-20
-10
0
Dominant Eigenbeam Pattern
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
PSD of Macro Cell Model: 70 AoA, 10 AS
Long-term average power
profile according to
angle
Beam pattern of the
dominant eigenvector
Dominant eigenvector is
associated with 99.9%
power
AoA is around 15°
AS = 10°
NOT for distribution, confidential
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-50 0 50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
Dominent Eigenbeam Pattern
-50 0 50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
2nd Eigenbeam Pattern
-50 0 50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
3rd Eigenbeam Pattern
-50 0 50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
4th Eigenbeam Pattern
Eigenbeam Patterns of Macro Model
0 % 0 %
99.9%
0.1%
NOT for distribution, confidential
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-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-30
-20
-10
0
10
Angular PSD of correlation matrix
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Angular PSD of dominant eigenvector
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
PSD of Micro Cell Model: 60 AoA, 45 AS
Dominant eigenvector is
associated with 57%
of total power
60 AoA
45 AS
NOT for distribution, confidential
17
-50 0 50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
Dominent Eigenbeam Pattern
-50 0 50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
2nd Eigenbeam Pattern
-50 0 50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
3rd Eigenbeam Pattern
-50 0 50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Angle (degree)
G
a
i
n

(
d
B
)
4th Eigenbeam Pattern
Eigenbeam Patterns of Micro Cell
0.4 % 3.7 %
57.2%
38.7%
NOT for distribution, confidential
18
Need Common Correlation Model
 Very limited simulation environments can be
considered
 Eigenbeamformer scheme has adopted this spatial
channel model
 Uniformly distributed power on an angular region

 Common & more reliable simulation spatial
channel model is required
 Need specific descriptions of more channel
parameters, AOA, PAS, AS, etc
NOT for distribution, confidential
19
Spatial Channel Model by AHG
 Text description: SCM-077 11/2002
 Recommended to use MIMO physical layer channel
model proposed
 SCM AHG (AH-62) from 3GPP & 3GPP2

 Develop and specify parameters and methods
associated with
 Link level spatial channel model
 For calibration only
 System level spatial channel model
 Define physical parameters and system evaluation
methodology
NOT for distribution, confidential
20
Link level channel model
 Developed and specified by 3GPP-3GPP2 SCM AH
 Only for calibration purposes
 Reflect only one snapshot of the channel behavior
 Do not account for system attributes such as
scheduling and HARQ
 Only for comparison of performance results from
different implementation of a given algorithm
 Status: 95% completed
 Distribution is not defined yet
NOT for distribution, confidential
21
System level channel model
 Required for the final algorithm comparison
 Define the methodology for generating the
spatial channel coefficients between BS and MS
 95% completed
 Will not be covered here but later
NOT for distribution, confidential
22
Terminologies
 MS = UE = terminal
= subscriber unit
 BS = Node-B = BTS
 AS = angle spread
= azimuth spread
 Path = Ray
 Path component
= Sub-ray
 PAS = power azimuth
spectrum
 DoT = direction of travel
 AoA = angle of arrival
 AoD = angle of departure
 PDP = power delay profile
A
o
A
o
n
u
0 = u
BS
UE
D
o
T
NOT for distribution, confidential
23
Parameters of Link Level SCM
Model Case I Case II Case III Case IV
3GPP Case B Case C Case D Case A
3GPP2 Model A, D, E Model C Model B Model F
PDP Mod. Pedestrian A Vehicular A Pedestrian B Single path
Speed (Km/h)
1) 3
2) 30, 120
3, 30, 120 3, 30, 120 3
# of paths
1) 4 + 1 (LOS on, K=6 dB)
2) 4 (LOS off)
6 6 1
Relative path
power (dB)
& Delay (ns)
LOS on
0.0
-6.51
-16.21
-25.71
-29.31
LOS off
–Inf
0.0
-9.7
-19.2
-22.8

0
0
110
190
410
0.0
-1.0
-9.0
-10.0
-15.0
-20.0
0
310
710
1090
1730
2510
0.0
-0.9
-4.9
-8.0
-7.8
-23.9
0
200
800
1200
2300
3700
0 0
 Multipath fading propagation conditions
NOT for distribution, confidential
24
Parameters of Link Level SCM…
Model Case I Case II Case III Case IV
Topology Reference: ULA with 0.5, 4, 10 spacing N/A
PAS
Laplacian distribution with
RMS angle spread of 2 or 5 degrees per path
depending on AoA/AoD
N/A
AoD/AoA
(degrees)
50 for 2 RMS AS per path
20 for 5 RMS AS per path
N/A
Antenna gain
pattern
3 or 6 sector antenna pattern
(For diversity oriented applications rather than beamforming applications)
 Spatial parameters for NodeB
NOT for distribution, confidential
25
Parameters of Link Level SCM…
Model Case I Case II Case III Case IV
Topology Reference 0.5 N/A
PAS
1) LOS on: Fixed AoA for
LOS component, remaining
power has 360 degree
uniform PAS. ( RMS angle
spread of 104 degrees)

2) LOS off: Laplacian
distribution with RMS angle
spread of 35 degrees per
path
Laplacian distribution
with RMS angle
spread of 35 degrees
per path
OR
360 degree uniform
PAS ( RMS angle
spread of 104
degrees)
Laplacian distribution
with RMS angle
spread of 35 degrees
per path
N/A
DoT
(degrees)
0 22.5 -22.5 N/A
AoA
(degrees)
22.5 (LOS component)
67.5 (all other paths)
67.5 (all paths)
22.5 (odd paths)
-67.5 (even paths)
N/A
Antenna gain
pattern
Omni directional with -1 dBi gain
 Spatial parameters for UE
NOT for distribution, confidential
26
Assumptions of Link Level SCM
 Spatial channel parameters per path
 Each resolvable path is characterized by spatial
channel parameters: AS, AoA, PAS
 All paths are assumed independent

 Array Topologies
 Allow any type of antenna configuration, but must be
shared to reproduce and verify the results
 ULA with element spacing of 0.5, 4, 10 wavelengths

NOT for distribution, confidential
27
Antenna Gain Patterns
 UE: -1 dBi gain omni-direction
 Node B uplink/downlink
 Only for diversity oriented implementations (large spacing)
 Need different antenna patterns for beamforming applications
 3 sector cell
 Bandwidth 70°, Maximum attenuation 20 dB, 14 dBi gain
 6 sector cell
 Bandwidth 35°, Maximum attenuation 23 dB, 17 dBi gain
 Sector antenna formula in dB scale
( ) 180 θ 180 , A ,
θ
θ
12 -min θ A
m
3dB
< < ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
|
|
.
|

\
|
· =
NOT for distribution, confidential
28
Sector Antenna Patterns at NodeB
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Antenna Pattern for 3 sector cell
Azimuth in Degrees
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
BW = 70 degree BW = 70 degree
maximum attenuation (Am)
 3 sector antenna pattern
NOT for distribution, confidential
29
Sector Antenna Patterns at NodeB…
-120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Antenna Pattern for 6 sector cell
Azimuth in Degrees
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
BW = 35 degree BW = 35 degree
maximum attenuation (Am)
 6 sector antenna pattern
NOT for distribution, confidential
30
Average Received Power
( ) ( ) θ G
σ
θ θ 2
exp N θ P
0
·
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ · ÷
· =
( )dθ θ P N
π
π
1
0
}
÷
÷
=
( )
( )/10 θ A
10 θ G =
 Laplacian distributed PAS
Normalization factor
Gain pattern in linear scale
θ Angle of Arrival
| | | | θ E θ E σ
2 2
÷ =
RMS angle spread
NOT for distribution, confidential
31
Average Received Power at NodeB
-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.2
Avaerage received power
Angle (degree)
P
A
S

v
a
l
u
e

P
(

u
)
 3 sectored antenna with AoA = 20 and RMS AS = 5
NOT for distribution, confidential
32
Average Received Power at UE
 Laplacian distributed PAS with omni-directional gain
( ) 1 θ G =
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ · ÷
· =
σ
θ θ 2
exp N θ P
0
NOT for distribution, confidential
33
Average Received Power at UE…
 22.5 AoA & 35 RMS AS
-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.01
0.012
0.014
0.016
0.018
0.02
Avaerage received power
Angle (degree)
P
A
S

v
a
l
u
e

P
(

u
)
NOT for distribution, confidential
34
Average Received Power at UE…
 22.5 AoA & 104 RMS AS (uniform over 360 degree PAS)
-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
x 10
-3
Avaerage received power
Angle (degree)
P
A
S

v
a
l
u
e

P
(

u
)
NOT for distribution, confidential
35
Doppler Spectrum at UE
 Dependent on
 DoT
 PAS
 AoA
A
o
A
o
n
u
0 = u
BS
UE
D
o
T
NOT for distribution, confidential
36
Generation of link level channel model
 Average received power
 Angle theta represents path components
 Its distribution is TBD
 Uniformly distribution over [-180 180] degrees

 Channel implementation techniques
 Correlation based
 Ray based
 Details are TBD
 Reference correlation values are provided
 Nokia to provide formulas for computing correlation
matrices
NOT for distribution, confidential
37
Future Plan
 Link-level SCM generation and verification
 MatLab, SPW, etc

 Continual study of system-level models

 Using these models for performance testing in
various development projects (TDD, FDD, EV-DV,
TD-SCDMA)
NOT for distribution, confidential
38
References
 Old 3GPP Model:
 TSGR1#14(00)0867
 TSGR1#15(00)1067
 TSGR1#16(00)1187
 TSGR1#17(00)1358
 Tx Div Model:
 TSGR1#26(02)
0765, 770
 TSGR1#29(02)
1139,1419,1440
1441 (TR25.869)
 MIMO Model:
 TSGR1#22(01)1132
 TSGR1#22(01)1136
 TSGR1#23(01)1179
 TSGR1(02)0141
 SCM-077,
November 2002
by 3GPP-3GPP2