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Deepak Shenoy K (4SU08EE014) Dept. of E & E SDMIT

Contents

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Efficient Power Generation Centralized Grid Distributed Generation DG technology Option And Choice Factor Combined Heat And Power Generation Efficiency Benefits Advantages And Disadvantages Conclusion References

Efficient Power Generation
 Rapid economic growth and demand for energy
 Increased cost of fossil fuel and power  Climatic changes

 Potentially less damaging sources
 Usage of renewable resources  Distributed Generation and Cogeneration

Centralized Grid
• Large generating facilities
• Coal, Nuclear, Hydro Power plants • Fuel Transport Cost

• Transmission and Distribution
• Remote customers from the grid • Pollution and harm to the Environment

Distributed Generation
 Small plant systems
 An energy production system that is close to the load  Localized or connected to the power grid

 Distributed generation avoids the losses that occur in

transmission over long distances  It can reduce or eliminate dependence on the national electricity grid and its related costs and reliability  Generation of electrical power is specifically designed to meet the requirements of the host facility

DG Technology Options

Technology Choice
 Energy costs and fuel availability
 Electrical load size/factor/shape  Load criticality  Thermal load size/shape  Special load considerations

 Regulatory requirements

Reciprocating Engine
• Size Range: 30 - 6,000 kW
• Electric efficiency: 28 - 38% • Fast startup (10 secs) capability

allows for use as standby • Thermal energy in the form of hot water or low pressure steam • High maintenance requirements (lot of moving parts) • Emissions can be an issue

Fuel Cells

Size range: 3 - 3,000 kW
Start-up time: 3 hrs + Electric efficiency: 36-65%

Very low emissions - exempt in some areas
Only PAFC is commercially available

Combined Heat And Power
 Also called Cogeneration
 CHP sequentially produces electricity, thermal or

mechanical energy
 Traditionally the most effective DG option
 High system efficiency is key to economics  High operating hours covers high capital costs  CHP is attractive from an energy and environmental

policy perspective

CHP Systems- Steam boiler

CHP systems-Combined cycle

Efficiency Benefits

Environmental Benefits of CHP (NOX)

Advantages
 Low cost
 Reduced energy related cost, resulting in lower

operating cost  Increased economic development value  Reduced emission of greenhouse gases  Increased reliability and resource adequacy fo the grid

Disadvantages
 Equipment cost
 Conventional distributed systems need adequate

protection to accommodate exchange of power  Connection and revenue contracts are difficult to establish  Variability of output owing to dependence upon natural resources

Conclusions
 Improved technology offers improving efficiency,

utility and emissions  Environmental regulations should recognize the role, value and limitations of DG technology  Increased use of renewable resources

References
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributed_generation http://www.dg.history.vt.edu/ch2/environment.html http://www.rglsolutions.com/Distributed_Generation.htm http://www.cospp.com/articles PDF’s  DOE: The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and Rate-Related Issues that May Impede Their Expansion; 2009.  Lovins; Small Is Profitable: The Hidden Economic Benefits of Making Electrical Resources the Right Size; Rocky Mountain Institute, 2010.  UN - “Guidebook on cogeneration as a means of pollution control and energy efficiency in Asia” United Nations 2011.

Thank You
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