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SHIP TRACKING USING BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION AND INTER-FRAME CORRELATION
BY SHARAN KUMAR P USN 4SU08EC044

Introduction
Video surveillance :
 Widely used for automatic monitoring in sea port security, maritime transportation
 Many applications have been developed for monitoring ship waterways using stationary cameras.  In order to control normal activities in these areas, ship detection and tracking plays the important role in video surveillance systems

Background subtraction:
 Widely used method for moving object detection in video surveillance systems.

 Motion detection and tracking algorithms rely on the process of background subtraction, a technique which detects changes from a model of the background scene.

 It uses change detection method to identify and locate ships in waterway.

STEPS FOLLOWED FOR SHIP TRACKING
FLOW DIAGRAM:
Background estimation Locating target

Frame difference Inter-frame correlation Thresholding

Ship tracking
Morphological operation

1.Background estimation
 Main purpose is to process the video and create a background.


Based on a median filter.
Computes the median of the values at each pixel location over the beginning 30 frames in the video sequence. Background will be used as the reference for every frame when executing background subtraction

2.Frame difference:
 Every frame from the video and subtracts it by the background that was calculated in the previous step.

 The obtained frame difference shows a general shape of the moving regions which include an entire foreground and some backgrounds

3.Thresholding
 Fundamental method to convert a gray scale image into a binary mask, so that the objects can be segmented from the frame difference.  Very sensitive for the segmentation processing.  If the threshold is low, both the objects region and a significant amount of background can be detected.  If the threshold is high, only a small subset of the object region can be detected.

 Perform the extended-maxima transform and convert frame difference intensity image to a binary image.  The adaptive threshold is calculated as: TH = (FX-FM)/2+ FM,

Where TH is the threshold, FX is the maximum of frame difference intensity, FM is the mean of frame difference intensity

4.Morphological operation
 Morphological operation will filter the image to reduce any unwanted noise and fill holes in the binary image.

5.Locating target
 Some regions remaining due unavoidable noise.  Size filter used to further clean up the inside and outside of the object regions.

 Objects, which have smaller values than preset value in area, are discarded.  Only remained object in image will be masked and a silhouette will be formed.  Bounding box around the masked area is defined to generate a rectangular region containing the target.

 The centroid of the rectangular region will be obtained as the target location

6.Inter-frame correlation
 Target often cannot be masked because there is very little motion to be observed.

Method to detect and confirm target with inter-frame correlation:
1) If the current frame and its succeed frame have distinguished targets, its nearest previous frame will be performed to calculate the correlation coefficient C: C = A2/Am

T1 = (Oc∩Op),
T2 = (T1∩Ts),

Am = argmax(A1,Ap)

2) If the current frame and its previous frame have distinguished targets, its nearest succeed frame will be performed to calculate the correlation coefficient C: C = A2/Am
T1 = (Oc∩Os)

T2 = (T1∩Tp)
Am = argmax(A1,As) .

3) If the current frame has distinguished target, but both its previous and succeed frame have no targets, its correlation coefficient will be set to zero C = 0.  Current frame has C larger than THc.  Targets with small sizes are identified.

7.Ship tracking
 Target location and correlation confirm the target.  The tracking techniques is used to tie each frame’s moving target recognition results together.  The ship tracking with the centroids of the target region is completed.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

 Fig. 2(a). The selected frame .  Fig. 2(b). Median based background .  Fig. 2(c) is obtained by subtracting (b) from (a).  Figs. 2(d) and 2(e) show the results of thresholding using Otsu’s threshold and extended-maxima transform with an adaptive threshold, respectively.  Fig. 2(f) is obtained by after morphological operations and size filter for (e).

Ship detection results comparison

Fig. 3(a) shows the ship detection results without inter-frame correlation, where a burst detection due to a large frame difference. Fig.3(b) illustrate results with inter-frame correlation of THc=0.75 Fig.3(c) illustrate results with inter-frame correlation of THc=0.50

Minimum size ship detection

Figure 4

Fig.4. shows minimum size ship detection
 Fig.4(a) is selected frame and (b) is detection result from (a) (c)is selected frame and fig4 (d) is detection result from (c), without inter-frame correlation.  Fig 4 (e) is selected frame and (f) is detection result from (e), fig 4(g) is selected frame and (h) is detection result from (g) ,with inter-frame correlation of THc=0.75.  Fig4 (i) is selected frame and (j) is detection result from (i),(k) is frame and (l) is detection result from (k) ,with inter-frame correlation of THc=0.50.

ADVANTAGES
 All floating marine vehicles are traced easily.  Simple image processing concept is utilized.  The concept uses median filter that has excellent noise reduction capacity so noise is reduced upto maximum extend.  Due to usage of correlation concept output will be almost perfect one and accurate one.  Morphological operation will filter the image to reduce any unwanted noises and fill holes so output will be clear.

DISADVANTAGES
 Submarine tracking is not possible.  The distance of tracking is limited.  Some times picture of ship may lost while background subtraction.  Communication with ship is not possible in this system.

Conclusion
 Essential requirement for maritime surveillance systems.  New algorithm for ship detection and tracking in image sequences, capable of handling in situ waterway surveillance.

 Future work:More robust algorithm to deal with water
reflections, waves and its breakings should be developed.

References:
 A Survey on Behaviour Analysis in Video Surveillance Applications, Teddy Ko,Raytheon Company,USA  Background subtraction techniques: a review, IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004 Review and Evaluation of Commonly-Implemented Background Subtraction Algorithms, International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), 2008. Detection and tracking of marine vehicles in video, International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), 2008.

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