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Instructor: Hong Th Khnh Tm Group 6: Nguyn Th Tuyn Nguyn Th Thy Trang V Nguyn oan Uyn L Th Lin L Hng Giang Mai Th Thu Hng

OUTLINE
I. II. III. IV. Definition The aim of observation How to observe classroom Quiz

What is observation?

Although the term 'observation' suggests watching what happens, it also includes listening; observation data is often in the form of examples of what people have said.

Classroom Observation is a process by which a person sits in on one or more class sessions, records the instructor's teaching practices and student actions, and then meets with the instructor to discuss the observations.
Classroom observation is a research context, rather than a particular method

For example:
Every lesson, the teacher gives us a form to evaluate the presentation of other groups. Some students observe experienced teachers to get some skills.

The aim
Why use observation? - Observation is probably the most effective way to see what people do and to hear what they say. Teachers may gain more accurate information by watching students than by asking them.

- Description of instructional practices - Investigation of instructional inequities for different groups of students - Improvement of teachers' classroom instruction based on feedback from individual classroom or school profiles.

How to observe classroom


Methods of classroom observation and research: - Experimental: methods of comparison studies seeking to evaluate the relative claims of different methods by randomly assigning students to two different groups and providing different instruction to these groups.

In a class, the teacher wants to evaluate effect between studying in group and individual. One week, organizing class to study in group Next week, organizing individual Compare the results Giving conclusions

- Stimulated recall: the researcher records and transcribes parts of lesson and then get the teacher (and if possible, students) to comment on what was happening at the time at teaching and learning took place. For example: Every lesson, the teacher gives us a form to comment the presentation of other groups.

- Observation schemes: + Structured Observation + Unstructured Observation Here are some questions to ask to help you find a suitable scheme: Does the scheme employ a sign or a category system? ( CS allows the observer to document a behavior eg: teacher asks questions every time it occurs, while a SS requires an observation to be made at regular intervals) Does the same require the documentation of high or low inference behaviors? Does the scheme allow a particular event to be assigned to more than 1 category or event?

Is the instrument intended to be used in the real time or on video/audio recordings? Is the scheme intended principally for research or teacher education? What is the focus of the instrument? (Schemes can enable the researcher to focus on 1 or more of the following: verbal, paralinguistic, nonlinguistic, cognitive, effective, pedagogical content, or discourse). - Interaction analysis: discursive analysis of classroom talk.

The five dimensions of the analysis were as follow: 1. The environment in which the data were collected 2. The rationale for the research 3. The research design and method of collection 4. The type of data collected 5. The type of analysis

A COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR CLASSROOM OBSERVATION


METHOD Formal experiment TYPICAL QUESTION - Is method A superior to method B? - Do authentic listening text. To greater language gains than non-authentic listening text? - What is the basis upon which teacher decide to department lesson plan in the of a lesson? - Why do teachers decide to correct some errors and .others?

Stimulated recall

Observation schemes

- What is the range and distribution of language functions by teachers and pupils in the language classroom? - In mixed ability classrooms, how often are low proficiency students addressed by the teacher? - How do teachers maintain power and control through classroom discourse?

Interaction analysis

QUESTION 1
How many methods of classroom observation and research? A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5

QUESTION 2

A. B. C. D.

... is the research context, rather than a particular method Research Classroom Observation schemes Another idea

QUESTION 3
How many dimensions of the analysis ? A. 4 B. 6 C. 3 D. 5

QUESTION 4
...is the research records and transcibes parts of lesson and then gets the teacher to comment on what was happening at the time that the teaching and learning took place A. Experimental B. Stimulated recall C. Observation chemes D. Interaction analysis