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ENERGY CRISIS IN PAKISTAN

PRESENTATION BY: BILAL SARWAR REGISTRATION NO: FA11-BEL-016

ENERGY SECTOR IN PAKISTAN


Pakistan, a 61 year old independent state has still not been able to meet its demand of power and generation. Pakistan is not self-sufficient in energy production. Country faces huge electric power crises today. At present electricity is generated by only three modes: - THERMAL 65% - HYDEL 33% - NUCLEAR 2%

Two companies that produces electricity in Pakistan:


- WAPDA - KESC

About 55% of the total population is estimated to have access to electricity.

SUPPLY AND DEMAND


The total power production capacity in the country is about 19,500 MW. The country is falling short of 4500 MW The demand for the supply of electricity is growing at an annual rate of almost 9 %, whereas the supply of electricity is increasing at a comparatively slower rate of around 7 %. The power crisis is mainly caused by power line losses which can be as much as 25 percent. According to a survey: Household Sector 44.2% Industries 31.1% Agriculture 14.3% Government Sector 7.4% Commercial 5.5% S Street Lights 0.7%

SUPPLY THROUGH POWER PLANTS


Thermal Power Stations

- Wapda Operates -11 stations K - ESC Operates -4 stations - IPPs Operates -14 stations Independently Hydel Power Generation
- Tarbela Dam 1750 MW - Mangla Dam- 900 MW Nuclear Power Generation - Two nuclear reactors of 425 MW

REASON FOR CRISIS


Liquidity Crunch Faced by WAPDA WAPDA Reducing Supply to KESC Decrease in Generation Capacity of KESC KALABAGH Dam Nuclear power plants Coal reserves

Theft of electricity

EFFECTS OF THIS CRISIS


Effects on People: The household sector been the largest consumer of electricity accounting for 44.2 per cent of total electricity consumption this crisis has literally paralyzed the cities and villages and made life hell for the citizens. As a result, the house holds which are connected to the grid are going without electricity at average six hours of outages that are occurring per day this month. Effects on Economy: The economy of Pakistan is very badly effected by the crisis halting major trade and economic and agricultural activities. The industries consume 31.1 percent, agriculture 14.3 percent and commercial sector 5.5 percent of total consumption of the country. The factories having to shut down during the outages, international and domestic orders cannot be fulfilled due to reduced production..

SOLUTIONS TO END POWER SHORTAGE


Short Term Measures: The following short term measures can be taken immediately in order to reduce the intensity of existing power crisis: With power needed immediately, wind turbines look good because they are relatively fast to install whereas dams and nuclear power plants take five to six years to complete and thermal power plants need two years at least. Wind power can play a big part of solving Pakistan's energy shortages, and now that comprehensive wind maps have already been researched in the country. Immediate measure should be taken to install A Wind Turbine wind turbines especially in the already identified wind corridors of Karachi, Thatta, Gharo and Thar. The wind turbines are also a viable solution considering cost and environment.

Government authorities should ensure overhauling all of the countries existing power plants to achieve maximum generation as well as prevent it from overloading which has been a source of power outages. This can be done by periodically shutting down one plant at a time for maintenance and overhauling in order to avoid overloading on other power plants Long Term Measures: The following long term measures should be taken keeping in view the projected increase in power consumption in the future Pakistan has estimated as the world's third-largest known coal reserves of 33.0 trillion tons in the south-eastern part of the country i.e. Thar. The answer to long term solution of power crisis in Pakistan lies in using local coal for power generation. The electricity production from coal is also cheaper than thermal generation. In the long-term, Pakistan should also build more nuclear plants and dams.

Rehabilitation and replacement of the outdated transmission and distribution systems is also a long term measure through which the country can overcome the perennial problem of line losses and thefts by unscrupulous consumers. All of the above mentioned measures if implemented with commitment and honesty of purpose can help our country and people to over come negative implications of power crisis All of the above mentioned measures if implemented with commitment and honesty of purpose can help our country and people to over come negative implications of power crisis

CONCLUSION
It hardly needs to be emphasized that electricity is the lifeline of national economy and the people at large. The Economy and public life practically come to a halt because of the load shedding. The existing crisis can be addressed by the government by taking prompt measures and by public by taking energy conservation measures. There is hardly any room for neglect or delay now