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# 09 March 2012

By the end of this lesson you will be able to; Recall the factors that effect rate of reaction Demonstrate an understanding of the terms rate of reaction, rate equation, order of reaction, rate constant and half life. Starter What four things effect the rate of reaction? Conc. Temp. Catalyst Surface area

Introduction to rates

## The syllabus says

4.3. a. demonstrate and understanding of the terms rate of reaction, rate equation, order of reaction, rate constant, half-life, rate determining step, activation energy, heterogeneous and homogenous catalyst b. select and describe a suitable experimental technique to obtain rate data for a given reaction, eg colorimetry, mass change and volume of gas evolved

## Rate of reaction and activation energy

Reactions occur when reactant particles collide with a minimum amount of energy called the activation energy. The rate of reaction is defined as the change in concentration of reactants (or products) per unit time. The activation energy for a reaction is the minimum amount of energy that particles need to have if a collision between them is to result in a reaction.

## Measuring rates of reaction

To measure the rate of reaction, we need to be able to measure either how quickly the reactants are used up or how quickly the products are formed. The method used for measuring depends on the substances involved.

If a graph of concentration or volume of products or reactants is plotted against time, the gradient will be the rate of reaction. concentration of products
time concentration of reactants

time

Measuring rates

## The rate equation

The rate equation is an equation that relates the concentrations of substances involved in a reaction to the rate of the reaction. For the reaction A + B C the rate of reaction depends on the concentrations of A and B ([A] and [B]) and various constants in the following way: Rate = k [A]m [B]n

k is the rate constant (units depend of values of m and n) m is the order of reaction with respect to A n is the order of reaction with respect to B. m + n = overall order of the reaction

## Determining the rate equation

The rate equation can be determined by completing a series of experiments varying the concentrations of each of the reactants.

To determine how [A] affects the rate, several different experiments can be carried out in which [B] is kept constant and [A] is changed. The data can then be used to work out the relationship between rate and [A].

A similar set of experiments can be carried out keeping [A] constant and varying [B] to determine how changing [B] affects the rate of reaction.

Orders of reaction

## The effect of temperature on k

When temperature increases, rate of reaction increases. This is because the rate constant, k, increases with temperature. temperature (K) 556 rate constant, k (mol dm3 s1) 4.45 105

575 629
666 700 781

## 1.37 104 2.52 103

1.41 102 6.43 102 1.34