AHADITH It’s significance & development

compiled & presented by : Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail (PERGAS)

‫95: 4 : ’‪Qur’an : An-Nisa‬‬

‫يَ ٓأ ُيَہََاٱلَّذين ءَامنوا ْ أ َ‬ ‫َ ُ ٓ طِيعُواْ‬ ‫َٰ ّ‬ ‫ِ َ‬ ‫ٱلل َّه وأ َ‬ ‫َّ ُ َ‬ ‫َ َ طِيعُوا ْٱلرسول‬ ‫وأُولى ٱلأ َ‬ ‫ۡ مرِ منكُمۡ‌ۖ فَإِن‬ ‫َ ِْ‬ ‫ۡ ِ‬ ‫تَن ََٰزعتُم فِى شى ٍ۬ فَردُّوه‬ ‫َ ۡ ۡ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ ۡ ء ُ‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫إِلَىٱ للهِ ٱلََرسول إِن‬ ‫و َّ ُ‬ ‫َِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ك ُنتمۡ تؤۡ منون بلَل ّه‬ ‫ٱ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬


Qur’an : An-Nisa’ : 4 :59
O You who believe ! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority from among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it back to Allah and to His Messenger, if you do believe in Allah and the Last day : That is best and most suitable for final determination.
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 3

‫12 : 33 : ‪Qur’an : Al-Ahzab‬‬

‫َّ‬ ‫لقدۡ كَان لَكُم فِى رسول‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ ُ ِ‬ ‫ٱللَّه أ ُ‬ ‫ِ سوَةٌ حسن َة ل ِّمن كَان‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ ٌ۬ َ‬ ‫يرجوا ْ ٱ لل َّه ٱل َيوۡم ٱلأ َ‬ ‫َ و َ ۡ َ َ ۡ خر‬ ‫َ ۡ ُ‬ ‫ِ َ‬ ‫ََ‬ ‫ً۬‬ ‫وَذَك َر ٱلل ّه كَثِيرا‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬ ‫4‬

Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 : 21
Verily, in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example for everyone who looks forward (with hope and awe) to Allah and the Last day, and who engages in the remembrance of Allah unceasingly.

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


‫4-3 : 35 : ‪Qur’an : An-Najm‬‬

‫وَما يَنطِقُ ع َن ٱلهَوَىٓ‬ ‫ٰ‬ ‫ِ ۡ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫َ ٰ‬ ‫ۡ ٌ۬‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫إِن هُوَ إ ِل وَحى يُوحى‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫عَلمه ۥ شدِيد ُ ٱلۡقوَىٰ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ ُ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬ ‫6‬

Qur’an : An-Najm : 53 : 3-4
……and neither does he speak out of his own desire : that (which he conveys to you) is but (a divine) inspiration with which he is being inspired - something that a very mighty one has imparted to him………..

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


‫7 : 95 : ‪Qur’an : Al-Hashr‬‬

‫َّ‬ ‫وَما ٓ ءَات َٰٮك ُم ٱلرسولُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫فَخذُوه ُ وَما َہََٮكُم عَنه‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ ن ٰ ۡ ۡ ُ‬ ‫َ ْ َّ‬ ‫َفنَتَهُ ْۚ ٱتََ ّقواٱلل‌ۖ إ ِنَ‬ ‫ٱ وا‌َ‌ و ُ‬ ‫ه ّ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ٱلله شدِيد ُ ٱلعِقاب‬ ‫ۡ َ ِ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬ ‫8‬

Qur’an : Al-Hashr : 59 : 7
Hence, accept (willingly) whatever the Messenger gives you (thereof), and refrain from (demanding) anything that he withholds from you; and remain conscious of Allah : for verily, Allah is severe in retribution.

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 64

َّ َ ‫وما ٓ أ‬ ‫َ َ رسلنَا من رسول إ ِل‬ ُ َّ ِ ۡ َ ۡ ٍ َ ّ ‫لِيُطَاع َ بِإذنٱلل‬ ‌‫ِ ۡ ِ ه‬ ِۚ
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 10

Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 64
For We have never sent any Messenger except that he should be heeded (obeyed) by Allah’s leave”.

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


‫56 : 4 : ‪Qur’an : An-Nisa‬‬

‫َ َ َ َ‬ ‫فَل وَرب ِّك ل يُؤۡمنُون حتَّىٰ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ ِ ُ َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ي ُحكّموك فِيما شجر‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫ۡ َّ َ‬ ‫ب َۡينَهُم ث ُم ل ي َجدُوا ْ فِى‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ٓ‬ ‫أنَ‬ ‫ُ ِ ۡ َ َ ً ۬ ِّ َّ‬ ‫فسہِم حرجا مما‬ ‫قَضيت وي ُسل ِّموا ْ تَسۡل ِيما‬ ‫۬‬ ‫َۡ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬


Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 65
But nay. By thy Sustainer! They do not [really] believe unless they make thee [O Prophet] the judge of all on which they disagree among themselves, and then find in their hearts no resistance against thy decision, but accept it in full submission.”
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 13

‫2: 26 : ‪Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah‬‬

‫هو ٱلَّذى بعث فى ٱلأ ُ‬ ‫ۡ مي ِ َّۧن‬ ‫ِ ََ َ ِ‬ ‫ِّ َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫رسولمنۡہُم ي َۡتلُوا ْ عَل َ‬ ‫يۡہِم‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫َ ُ ً۬ ِّ ۡ‬ ‫ءَاي ََٰ ت ِ ِۦ َوَي ُزكّيہِمۡ وَيُعَل ِّ‬ ‫مهُم‬ ‫هَ َ ِ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫ٱلكِت ََٰ ب َٱلََۡحكمة وَإِن‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫َ و ِ ۡ َ َ‬ ‫ك َانوا ْ من قَبل ل َ‬ ‫ۡ ُ فى‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬ ‫41‬

Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah : 62 :2
He (Allah) it is who has sent unto the unlettered people a Messenger from among themselves, to convey unto them His messages, and to cause them to grow in purity, and to impart unto them the divine Writ as well as Wisdom - whereas before that they were indeed, most obviously, lost in error -; and (to cause the message to spread) from them unto other people as soon as they come into contact with them : for He (Allah) alone is almighty, truly wise !
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 15

‫63: 33 : ‪Qur’an : Al-Ahzab‬‬

‫َ ُ ۡ ِ ۬ َ‬ ‫وَما كَان ل ِمؤمن وَل‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫َّ‬ ‫مؤمنَةٍ إِذَا قَضى ٱلله‬ ‫ُ ۡ ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ورسول ُه ۥۤ أَمۡرا أ َ‬ ‫ً ن‬ ‫ََ ُ ُ‬ ‫يَكُون لَهُم ٱلۡخي َرة ُ منۡ‬ ‫ِ َ ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫أَ‬ ‫مرهِم ومن ي َعص‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫ۡۗ‬ ‫ۡ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬


Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 :36
“ Now whenever Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, it is not for a believing man or a believing woman to claim freedom of choice insofar as they themselves are concerned; for he who (thus) rebels against Allah and His Messenger has already, most obviously, gone astray.”
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 17

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said :
“…...I leave behind me two things,

whomsoever hold fast to these two, they will never be led astray : (these are) the Book of Allah and the Sunnah (Way) of His Messenger….” (Hadith reported by Malik)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 18

The “Sunnah” explains or elaborates the “Qur’an”

ۡ‫وأَنزلنا ٓ إلَيك ٱلذّڪ‬ َ ۡ ِ َ َۡ َ ‫ِ ر لِتُبَي ِّن‬ َ َ َ ‫لِلنَّاس ما ن ُزِل إِل‬ ‫ِ َ ّ َ يۡہِم‬ ۡ َّ ‫ولَعلَّهمۡ يتفك‬ ‫َ َ ُ َ َ َ رون‬ َ ُ
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 19

The “Sunnah” explains or elaborates the “Qur’an”
“And upon thee (too) have We bestowed from on high this reminder, so that thou might make clear unto mankind all that has ever been thus bestowed upon them, and that they might take thought. (Qur’an : An-Nahl : 44)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 20

The “Sunnah” explains or elaborates the “Qur’an”
“ .....and be constant in ‘as-Solah’ (that is the fixed obligatory daily prayer)…” (Qur’an : al-Baqarah : 2 : 43)
But the Qur’an does not provide the detail, thus the Prophet (pbuh) said :

“Establish ‘as-Solah’ as you see me do” (Hadith reported by Bukhary)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 21

What is “Sunnah” ?
…(it means) :

“the way ... or ... the law “
It is usually used to indicate the practice or the teachings of our Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and are divided into : Qau-liyyah (sayings) Taqririyyah (consent) Fi’liyyah (actions) Hammiyyah (resolve)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 22

Hi sto ric al Ba ckg round

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


Teaching of “Sunnah” dur ing the Prophet ’s t ime.
Prophet (pbuh) taught by :

(1) Verbal tea ching (2) Written medi um (di ctation to scribes) (3) Practi cal demo nstrati on
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 24

What is “Hadith” ?
…(Plural is “Ahadith” - it means) :

“the news , the report ..or .. narration“
It is usually used to refer to the report or sayings, transmitted through a chain of people, and originated from or upto the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Thus a “Hadith” contains the “Sunnah”
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 25

Was “Hadith” ever written down during the Prophet’s time ?
“An Ansarite complained to the Prophet (pbuh) that he had weak memory and that he easily forgot the Prophet’s instructive discourses. The Prophet (pbuh) replied “Take the aid of thy right hand (i.e. write it down).” (Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 26

Was “Hadith” ever written down during the Prophet’s time ?
Abdallah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-’As, a young Meccan had a habit of writings down all that the Prophet used to say. Abdallah went to the Prophet and asked him if one could note all that he said. He replied :”Yes”. Abdallah persisted :”Even when thou art happy and satisfied, even when thou art annoyed ?” The Prophet said : “Of course, by Allah ! Nothing that comes out of this mouth is ever a lie.” (Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 27

“ Tahamul al-’Ilmul-al-Hadith” ( Lear ning of Ah adith )
Methods of learning Ahadith : (1) Sama’ - reading by teacher (2) ‘Ardl - reading to teacher (3) Ijazah - confer permission (4) Munawalah - conferring the materials (5) Mukatabah - writing (6) I’lam - conferring authority (7) Wasiyah - bequeathing books (8) Wijadah - writings which are found
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 28

Period of Compilation of Ahadith Corpus

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


What is “Hadith” ?
It contains two parts :

ISNAD - (chain of narrators of the report) MATN - (the content of the teaching from
the Prophet [pbuh])
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 30

What is “Hadith” ?
Example of Hadith

from from from from

Imam Bukhary -reported Musa Abu ‘Awanah Abu Hussain Abu Hurayrah - who heard

Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] said :

“Whosoever fabricates falsehood intentionally against me, let him seek his abode in hell-fire.”
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 31

Categori zati on of “Ha di th”
According to the number of “Isnad”

a “Sunnah” reported by 4 or more chains of narrators (ISNAD)

a “Sunnah” reported by 3 or less chains of narrators (ISNAD)

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


Sample of Mutawwatir Hadith
Al-Bukhary Musa Abu ‘Awanah Abu Hussain Abu Hurairah Muslim Ali al-Hidir Ali b Mushir Muhammad b Qais Ali b Rabi’ah Al-Mughirah Ad-Darimi Muhammad b Esa Haitsam Abu Zubair Jabir Abu Dawud ‘Amr b ‘Aun Musaddad Wabrah ‘Amir Abdullah b Zubair Az-Zubair Ibn Majah Muhamad b Ramh Al-Laits Abnu Shihab Anas

“Whosoever fabricates falsehood intentionally against me, let him seek his abode in hell-fire.”
At-Tirmidzi Abu Hisham Abu Bakr b Ayyasy ‘Ashim Zirr Ibnu Mas’ud Ath-Thayalisi Abdur Rahman Abis-Zinad Amr b Sa’ied Uthman Abu Hanifah ‘Athiyah Abi Sa’ied al-Khudri Ath-Thabrani Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Nubaith b Syarieth Al-Hakim Abul-Fadl b Al-Husain Muhamad b A Wahab Ja’afar b ‘Aun Abu Hayyan Jazid b Hayyan Zaid b Arqam

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


Categori zati on of “Ha di th”
Further categorization of “Ahad” hadith on the basis of number of Chains.

narrated by way of 3 chains

narrated by

narrated by a single chain

2 chains

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

Science of Hadith Criticism
Al-‘ilm al-Jarh wa alTa’dil
(The knowledge of invalidating and declaring reliable in Hadith)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 35

Science of Hadith Criticism
Checking upon the “Isnad” (chain of narrators) q Checking upon the “Matn” (the text) q Checking the integrity of the “Rawi” (the narrators)

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


Reaso ns f or re ject ion of a “Hadit h”

Due to defec ts of th e narrator. Due to disco nti nui ty i n the chai n. Due to inci dental reasons.
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 37



Fiv e crit eria for the accept ance a “Ha dith”
Conti nui ty of the ch ain q Integrity of the transmi tt er (narrat or) q Soundness of nar rator’ s memor y q Conf ormi ty to stronger sources q Absence of hi dden def ects
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 38

“ Rij al al -Hadi th”
(the narrators of Ahadith)




Deta il ed a ccount o f e very narr ators. Their s tr ength a nd we akness subje cted to scrutiny Gra ding them accordin g g ra des of reli ability (‘ Adl, Ts iq a, Saduq, Saduq yahim, Ma qbul, L ayyin) Even th ose unre lia ble were id entifi ed (Ma jhul, Mu tta ham b il kadzib , Ka dzaZhulkeflee Hj Ismail Ustaz ab) 39

Principles for criticis m of the “M atn’ ( text)” of a Hadith

q q q



Not cont rary to Qur’an & authenti c Ahadi th Not i llogi cal, agai nst comm on l aw Not out of pr oporti on Not cont ai ning too much det ail on prophecy Not cont rary to the posit ion of the Prophet (pbuh) Personal praise or condemnat ion of any Compani ons, t ri bes or pl aces is suspect .
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


Categori zati on of “Ha di th”
Ahadith which are “Mash-hur” or “Aziz “

(Accepted) Shahih Authentic Hassan Good

( Rejected ) Dho’if Weak Maudhu’ Fabrication

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

Six famous Authentic books of Ahadi th (Shihahus- si tt ah)
q q

Ash-Sh ahih - Imam Bukhary

Al- Musnad a sh-Sh ahih - Imam

Musl im
q q

Sunan - Imam Abu D awud

Sunan al-Mu jta ba - Imam An-

Nasa ’i
q q

Sunan - Imam At-Ti rmi dzi

Sunan - Imam Ibnu M ajah Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail


Visit other blog-sites :


All rights reserved©2005 Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful