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AHADITH

It’s significance & development

compiled & presented by :


Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail
(PERGAS)
1
‫‪Qur’an : An-Nisa’ : 4 :59‬‬

‫َ‬
‫منُوٓا ْ أطِيعُواْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ن‬
‫ِ َ‬ ‫ي‬‫ذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫ََا‬ ‫ي‬
‫ہ‬ ‫ي ََٰ ٓأ ّ‬
‫سو َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ّ‬
‫ل‬ ‫ر‬
‫ّ ُ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ٱلل َ َ ِ ُ‬
‫ع‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ط‬ ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬
‫منكُمۡ‌ۖ فَإِن‬ ‫َ‬
‫وَأوْلِى ٱ ۡلأ ۡ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫مرِ ِ‬
‫شى ٍ۬ ءفَُرد ّ ُ‬
‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫م فِى َ ۡ‬ ‫زعت ُ ۡ‬
‫تَن َ َٰ َ ۡ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ل إِن‬ ‫سو‬
‫ِ َ ّ ُ َِ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫َ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫و‬
‫ٱ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫لل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫ى‬ ‫إِل‬
‫كُنتمۡ تؤۡ منونٱبلَل ّه‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
Qur’an : An-Nisa’ : 4 :59

O You who believe ! Obey Allah, and obey


the Messenger, and those charged with
authority from among you. If you differ in
anything among yourselves, refer it back to
Allah and to His Messenger, if you do
believe in Allah and the Last day : That is
best and most suitable for final
determination.
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 3
‫‪Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 : 21‬‬

‫َ‬
‫ل‬
‫َ ُ ِ‬ ‫سو‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ۡ‬
‫م‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ك‬‫َ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬
‫َ‬ ‫ا‬‫َ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ۡ‬
‫قد‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ل‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ن‬
‫َ‬ ‫ا‬‫َ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫من‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫۬‬
‫ة‬
‫َ ٌ َ َ َ ٌ ِ َ‬ ‫سن‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ة‬ ‫سو‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ٱلل ِ‬
‫ه‬ ‫ّ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َّ‬
‫خَر‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ۡ‬
‫لأ‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫و‬
‫َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َي‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ٱ‬
‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫لل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫جوا‬ ‫ر ُ‬ ‫يَ ۡ‬
‫َ‬
‫را‬‫ه كَثِي ً ۬‬ ‫وَذَكََر ٱلل َّ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬
Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 : 21

Verily, in the Messenger of Allah you have


a good example for everyone who looks
forward (with hope and awe) to Allah and
the Last day, and who engages in the
remembrance of Allah unceasingly.

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 5


‫‪Qur’an : An-Najm : 53 : 3-4‬‬

‫ن ٱ ۡلهَوَ ٰ‬
‫ىٓ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ن‬‫َ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ما‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫و‬
‫َّ‬
‫ى يُو َ ٰ‬
‫حى‬ ‫ح ٌ۬‬ ‫إِنۡ هُوَ إ ِل وَ ۡ‬
‫َ‬
‫قوَىٰ‬
‫شدِيد ُ ٱلۡ ُ‬ ‫ه‪ ‬ۥ َ‬ ‫عَل َ ُ‬
‫م‬ ‫ّ‬

‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬


Qur’an : An-Najm : 53 : 3-4

……and neither does he speak out of his


own desire : that (which he conveys to you)
is but (a divine) inspiration with which he
is being inspired - something that a very
mighty one has imparted to him………..

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 7


‫‪Qur’an : Al-Hashr : 59 : 7‬‬

‫سولُ‬ ‫م ٱل ّر ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ما ءَات َ ٰٮك ُ‬


‫ُ‬ ‫ٓ‬ ‫وَ َ‬
‫ه‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ۡ‬
‫ن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ۡ‬
‫م‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ٰ‬
‫ََٮك‬ ‫ہ‬
‫ن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ما‬ ‫و‬
‫ُ َ َ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫خ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ف‬
‫نَ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‌ۖ إ ِ ّ‬ ‫ه‬
‫َ‬ ‫لل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫قوا‬‫ُ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫َ‬‫َ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬
‫ٱ‬
‫َ‬ ‫‌‬ ‫وا‌َ‬
‫ۚ‬ ‫ه‬
‫َُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫نَت‬ ‫ف‬
‫ٱ‬
‫ب‬
‫قا ِ‬ ‫ه شدِيد ُ ٱ ۡلعِ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ٱلل َ‬ ‫ّ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬
Qur’an : Al-Hashr : 59 : 7

Hence, accept (willingly) whatever the


Messenger gives you (thereof), and refrain
from (demanding) anything that he
withholds from you; and remain conscious
of Allah : for verily, Allah is severe in
retribution.

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 9


Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 64

َّ َ
‫ل إ ِل‬
ٍ ‫سو‬ َ
ُ ‫من ّر‬ ِ ‫سلنَا‬ ۡ َ ‫ما أ ۡر‬
ٓ َ َ‫و‬
َّ
ِۚ‌‫نٱلله‬ ِ ‫لِيُطاع َ بِإ ِ ۡذ‬
َ

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 10


Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 64

For We have never sent any Messenger


except that he should be heeded (obeyed)
by Allah’s leave”.

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 11


‫‪Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 65‬‬

‫حتَّىٰ‬‫ُ ِ ُ َ َ‬‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫من‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫َ‬


‫ل‬ ‫َ‬
‫ك‬ ‫فَ َ َ ِّ‬
‫رب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫َ‬
‫جَر‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ش‬ ‫ما‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫َ‬
‫ك‬ ‫مو‬ ‫ك ُ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ح ِ‬ ‫يُ َ‬
‫ى‬
‫ٓ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ج‬
‫ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫َ‬
‫ل‬ ‫َ‬
‫م‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ۡ‬
‫م‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ۡ‬
‫ين‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ما‬ ‫م َّ‬ ‫حَر ً ۬‬ ‫سہ ۡ‬ ‫َ‬
‫جا ِّ‬ ‫ِم َ‬ ‫ف ِ‬ ‫أن ُ‬
‫سل ِّموا ْ تَسۡل ِ ۬‬
‫يما‬ ‫ضيت وي ُ َ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬
‫قَ َ ۡ‬ ‫‪12‬‬
Qur’an : An-Nisa : 4 : 65

But nay. By thy Sustainer! They do not


[really] believe unless they make thee [O
Prophet] the judge of all on which they
disagree among themselves, and then find
in their hearts no resistance against thy
decision, but accept it in full submission.”

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 13


‫‪Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah : 62 :2‬‬

‫ُ‬ ‫َّ‬
‫مي ِّ َۧ َ‬
‫ن‬ ‫ث فِى ٱ ۡلأ ِّ‬ ‫هُوَ ٱلذِى بَعَ َ‬
‫ُم ي َ ۡتلوا عَليۡہ ۡ‬
‫ِم‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫منۡہ ۡ‬‫سول ِّ‬‫َر ُ ً۬‬
‫م‬ ‫ه‬
‫ََُ ُ ُ ُ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫ِم‬ ‫ہ‬ ‫ي‬‫ّ‬ ‫ءَاي َ َٰ ت ِ ِهۦ ََوَيَُز ِك‬
‫ة وَإِن‬ ‫م َ‬ ‫حكۡ َ‬ ‫ب َوٱلََۡ ِ‬ ‫ٱ ۡلكِتََٰ َ‬
‫كَانوا من ق ۡبل لفى‬
‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫‪14‬‬
Qur’an : Al-Jumu’ah : 62 :2
He (Allah) it is who has sent unto the unlettered
people a Messenger from among themselves, to
convey unto them His messages, and to cause
them to grow in purity, and to impart unto them
the divine Writ as well as Wisdom - whereas
before that they were indeed, most obviously, lost
in error -; and (to cause the message to spread)
from them unto other people as soon as they
come into contact with them : for He (Allah)
alone is almighty, truly wise !
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 15
‫‪Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 :36‬‬

‫ن وََل‬ ‫م ٍ۬‬ ‫ن لِ ُ ۡ‬
‫مؤ ِ‬ ‫ما ك َ‬‫ا‬‫َ‬ ‫وَ َ‬
‫َّ‬
‫ه‬
‫ُ‬ ‫لل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫ضى‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫منَةٍ إِذَا ق‬ ‫مؤۡ ِ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫َ‬
‫ه‪ ‬ۥۤ أمًۡرا أن‬ ‫َ‬ ‫سول ُُ‬ ‫وََر ُ‬
‫منۡ‬ ‫ة‬
‫ِ ََ ُ ِ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫خي‬ ‫ۡ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫م‬ ‫َ‬
‫يَك َ ُ ُ‬
‫ه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ُ‬
‫مرهِمۡۗ ومن ي َ ۡعص‬
‫‪Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail‬‬
‫أ ۡ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪16‬‬
Qur’an : Al-Ahzab : 33 :36

“ Now whenever Allah and His Messenger


have decided a matter, it is not for a
believing man or a believing woman to
claim freedom of choice insofar as they
themselves are concerned; for he who
(thus) rebels against Allah and His
Messenger has already, most obviously,
gone astray.”
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 17
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said :

“…...I leave behind me two things,


whomsoever hold fast to these two,
they will never be led astray : (these
are) the Book of Allah and the
Sunnah (Way) of His Messenger….”

(Hadith reported by Malik)


Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 18
The “Sunnah” explains or
elaborates the “Qur’an”

‫ن‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ر‬ ۡ


‫ڪ‬ ّ ‫ذ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ٱ‬ ‫ك‬َ ۡ‫زلنَا إِلي‬
َ ٓ ۡ َ ‫وَأن‬ َ
ِ
َ ِّ َ ُ َ ِ
ۡ ‫ما نُّزِل إِليۡہ‬
‫ِم‬ َ َ َ ‫س‬ ِ ‫ا‬َ ّ ‫لن‬ِ ‫ل‬
َ َ
‫ن‬َ ‫فكُرو‬ ّ َ َ ‫وَلعَلهُمۡ يَت‬
ّ َ

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 19


The “Sunnah” explains or
elaborates the “Qur’an”

“And upon thee (too) have We bestowed


from on high this reminder, so that
thou might make clear unto mankind
all that has ever been thus bestowed
upon them, and that they might take
thought.
(Qur’an : An-Nahl : 44)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 20
The “Sunnah” explains or
elaborates the “Qur’an”

“ .....and be constant in ‘as-Solah’ (that


is the fixed obligatory daily prayer)…”
(Qur’an : al-Baqarah : 2 : 43)
But the Qur’an does not provide the detail, thus
the Prophet (pbuh) said :
“Establish ‘as-Solah’ as you see me do”
(Hadith reported by Bukhary)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 21
What is “Sunnah” ?
…(it means) :
“the way ... or ... the law “
It is usually used to indicate the practice or
the teachings of our Prophet Muhammad
(pbuh) and are divided into :
Qau-liyyah (sayings) Taqririyyah (consent)
Fi’liyyah (actions) Hammiyyah (resolve)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 22
Hi sto ric al
Ba ckg round

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 23


Teaching of “Sunnah”
dur ing
the Prophet ’s t ime.

Prophet (pbuh) taught by :

(1) Verbal tea ching


(2) Written medi um
(di ctation to scribes)
(3) Practi cal
demo nstrati on
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 24
What is “Hadith” ?
…(Plural is “Ahadith” - it means) :
“the news , the report ..or .. narration“
It is usually used to refer to the report or
sayings, transmitted through a chain of
people, and originated from or upto the
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
Thus a “Hadith” contains the “Sunnah”
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 25
Was “Hadith” ever written down
during the Prophet’s time ?

“An Ansarite complained to the Prophet


(pbuh) that he had weak memory and
that he easily forgot the Prophet’s
instructive discourses. The Prophet
(pbuh) replied “Take the aid of thy
right hand (i.e. write it down).”
(Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 26
Was “Hadith” ever written down
during the Prophet’s time ?

Abdallah ibn ‘Amr ibn al-’As, a young Meccan


had a habit of writings down all that the Prophet
used to say. Abdallah went to the Prophet and
asked him if one could note all that he said. He
replied :”Yes”. Abdallah persisted :”Even when
thou art happy and satisfied, even when thou art
annoyed ?” The Prophet said : “Of course, by
Allah ! Nothing that comes out of this mouth is
ever a lie.” (Hadith reported by at-Tirmidzi)

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 27


“ Tahamul al-’Ilmul-al-Hadith”
( Lear ning of Ah adith )
Methods of learning Ahadith :
(1) Sama’ - reading by teacher
(2) ‘Ardl - reading to teacher
(3) Ijazah - confer permission
(4) Munawalah - conferring the materials
(5) Mukatabah - writing
(6) I’lam - conferring authority
(7) Wasiyah - bequeathing books
(8) Wijadah - writings which are found
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 28
Period of Compilation of
Ahadith Corpus

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 29


What is “Hadith” ?
It contains two parts :

ISNAD - (chain of narrators of the report)

MATN - (the content of the teaching from


the Prophet [pbuh])

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 30


What is “Hadith” ?
Example of Hadith Imam Bukhary -reported
from Musa
from Abu ‘Awanah
from Abu Hussain
from Abu Hurayrah - who heard
Prophet Muhammad [pbuh] said :
“Whosoever fabricates falsehood
intentionally against me, let him seek his
abode in hell-fire.”
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 31
Categori zati on of
“Ha di th”
According to the number of “Isnad”

MUTAWWATIR AHAD
a “Sunnah” reported a “Sunnah” reported
by 4 or more chains by 3 or less chains
of narrators (ISNAD) of narrators (ISNAD)
VERY RELIABLE RELIABILITY DEPENDS ON
STRENGTH OF CHAIN

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 32


Sample of Mutawwatir Hadith
Al-Bukhary Muslim Ad-Darimi Abu Dawud Ibn Majah
Musa Ali al-Hidir Muhammad b Esa ‘Amr b ‘Aun Muhamad b Ramh
Abu ‘Awanah Ali b Mushir Haitsam Musaddad Al-Laits
Abu Hussain Muhammad b Qais Abu Zubair Wabrah Abnu Shihab
Abu Hurairah Ali b Rabi’ah Jabir ‘Amir Anas
Al-Mughirah Abdullah b Zubair
Az-Zubair

“Whosoever fabricates falsehood intentionally against me,


let him seek his abode in hell-fire.”

At-Tirmidzi Ath-Thayalisi Abu Hanifah Ath-Thabrani Al-Hakim


Abu Hisham Abdur Rahman ‘Athiyah Abu Ishaq Abul-Fadl b Al-Husain
Abu Bakr b Ayyasy Abis-Zinad Abi Sa’ied al-Khudri Ibrahim Muhamad b A Wahab
‘Ashim Amr b Sa’ied Nubaith b Ja’afar b ‘Aun
Zirr Uthman Syarieth Abu Hayyan
Ibnu Mas’ud Jazid b Hayyan
Zaid b Arqam

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 33


Categori zati on of
“Ha di th”
Further categorization of “Ahad” hadith on
the basis of number of Chains.

Mash-hur Aziz Gharib


(well-known) (strong) (rare)

narrated by way narrated by narrated by


of 3 chains 2 chains a single chain

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 34


Science of Hadith Criticism

Al-‘ilm al-Jarh wa al-


Ta’dil
(The knowledge of invalidating
and declaring reliable in
Hadith)
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 35
Science of Hadith Criticism

● Checking upon the “Isnad”


(chain of narrators)
● Checking upon the “Matn” (the
text)
● Checking the integrity of the
“Rawi” (the narrators)

Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 36


Reaso ns f or re ject ion of a
“Hadit h”

● Due to defec ts of th e
narrator.

● Due to disco nti nui ty i n the


chai n.

● Due to inci dental reasons.


Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 37
Fiv e crit eria for the
accept ance a “Ha dith”

● Conti nui ty of the ch ain


● Integrity of the transmi tt er
(narrat or)
● Soundness of nar rator’ s
memor y
● Conf ormi ty to stronger
sources
● Absence of hi dden def ects
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 38
“ Rij al al -Hadi th”
(the narrators of Ahadith)

● Deta il ed a ccount o f e very


narr ators.
● Their s tr ength a nd we akness
subje cted to scrutiny
● Gra ding them accordin g g ra des of
reli ability (‘ Adl, Ts iq a, Saduq,
Saduq yahim, Ma qbul, L ayyin)
● Even th ose unre lia ble were
id entifi ed (Ma jhul, Mu tta ham b il -
kadzib , Ka dza ab) Hj Ismail
Ustaz Zhulkeflee 39
Principles for criticis m of
the “M atn’ ( text)” of a
Hadith

● Not cont rary to Qur’an & authenti c


Ahadi th
● Not i llogi cal, agai nst comm on l aw
● Not out of pr oporti on
● Not cont ai ning too much det ail on
prophecy
● Not cont rary to the posit ion of the
Prophet (pbuh)
● Personal praise or condemnat ion of
any Compani ons, t ri bes or pl aces is
suspect .
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 40
Categori zati on of
“Ha di th”

Ahadith which are “Mash-hur” or “Aziz “

Maqbul Mardud
(Accepted) ( Rejected )

Shahih Hassan Dho’if Maudhu’


Authentic Good Weak Fabrication
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 41
Six famous Authentic books
of Ahadi th (Shihahus- si tt ah)

● Ash-Sh ahih - Imam Bukhary


● Al- Musnad a sh-Sh ahih - Imam
Musl im
● Sunan - Imam Abu D awud
● Sunan al-Mu jta ba - Imam An-
Nasa ’i
● Sunan - Imam At-Ti rmi dzi
● Sunan - Imam Ibnu M ajah
Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail 42
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