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DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

PRESENTED BY: AREEBA NAZ PRACHI P. HINGORANI

CONTENTS
WHAT IS DATABASE? DATA V/S INFORMATION WHY DO WE NEED A DATABASE? WHAT IS DBMS? STEPS IN DATABASE DESIGN ENTITY ATTRIBUTE KEY TYPES OF KEYS RELATION ER DIAGRAM RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SUCCESS STORY-ICICI FAILURE STORY-ORACLE

WHAT IS A DATABASE?
A database is any organized collection of data. Some examples of databases you may encounter in your daily life are:
a telephone book T.V. Guide airline reservation system motor vehicle registration records papers in your filing cabinet files on your computer hard drive.

Data vs. information: What is the difference?


What is data?
Data can be defined in many ways. Information science defines data as unprocessed information.

What is information?
Information is data that have been organized and communicated in a coherent and meaningful manner. Data is converted into information, and information is converted into knowledge. Knowledge; information evaluated and organized so that it can be used purposefully.

Why do we need a database?


Keep records of our: Clients Staff Volunteers To keep a record of activities and interventions; Keep sales records; Develop reports; Perform research

What is a Database Management System?


A DBMS is a collection of programs which:
provide management of databases control access to data contain a query language to retrieve information easily

FEATURES
Support for large amount of data Data sharing, concurrency and locking Data Security Data Integrity Fault tolerance and recovery

What is the ultimate purpose of a database management system?


Is to transform:
Data Information Knowledge Action

STEPS IN DATABASE DESIGN


Requirement analysis What does the user want? Conceptual database design Defining the entities and attributes, and the relationships between these -> The ER model Physical database design Implementation of the conceptual design using a Database Management System

Entity --> What is this table about? An entity is an object


that exists and is distinguishable from other objects. For instance, John Harris with is an entity, as he can be uniquely identified as one particular person in the universe.

Attribute (Field) --> an attribute is a property or characteristic.


ID, name, department, year, advisor TYPES: SIMPLE ATTRIBUTES COMPOSITE ATTRIBUTES SINGLE VALUED ATTRIBUTES MULTI VALUED ATTRIBUTES DERIVED ATTRIBUTES

Record (Tuple) --> A set of values for each attribute for one item
Relationship --> Definitions linking two or more tables

Key --> When we give a name to the property of the entity it is called a key. TYPES OF KEYSPrimary Key The attribute or combination of attributes that uniquely identifies a row or record in a relation is known as primary key.

Super Key An attribute or a combination of attribute that is used to identify the records uniquely is known as Super Key.

Candidate Key or Alternate key A relation can have only one primary key. It may contain many fields or combination of fields that can be used as primary key. One field or combination of fields is used as primary key. The fields or combination of fields that are not used as primary key are known as candidate key or alternate key.
Foreign Key A foreign key is an attribute or combination of attribute in a relation whose value match a primary key in another relation. The table in which foreign key is created is called as dependent table. The table to which foreign key is refers is known as parent table.

ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM


An E-R diagram can express the overall logical structure of a database graphically. E-R diagrams are simple and clearqualities that may well account in large part for the widespread use of the E-R model. Such a diagram consists of the following major component : Rectangles which represent entity sets Ellipses which represent attributes Diamonds which represent relationship sets Lines which link attributes to entity sets and entity sets to relationship set

TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS
One to one :An entity in A is associated with at most one entity in B, and an entity in B is associated with at most one entity in A One to many: An entity in A is associated with any number (zero or more) of entities in B An entity in B, however, can be associated with at most one entity in A

Many to one: An entity in A is associated with at most one entity in B. An entity in B, however, can be associated with anynumber (zero or more) of entities in A Many to many: An entity in A is associated with any number (zero or more) of entities in B, and an entity inB is associatedwith any number (zero or more) of entities in A.

EXAMPLE
Consider the entity-relationship diagram in Figure below, which consists of two entity sets,customer and loan, related through a binary relationship set borrower . The attributes associated with customer arecustomer-id ,customer-name,customerstreet , andcustomer-city. The attributes associated with loan are loan-number and amount. The attributes of an entity set that are members of the primary key are underlined.

Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)


A DBMS that is based on relational model is called as RDBMS. Relation model is most successful moDE. Designed by E.F. Codd, relational model is based on the theory of sets and relations of mathematics.

Relational model represents data in the form a table. A table is a two dimensional array containing rows and columns. Each row contains data related to an entity such as a student. Each column contains the data related to a single attribute of the entity such as student name. It doesnt bInd data wIth relationship between data item. Instead it allows you to have dynamic relationship between entities using the values of the columns.

FEATURES
Provides data to be stored in tables Persists data in the form of rows and columns Provides facility primary key, to uniquely identify the rows Creates indexes for quicker data retrieval Provides a virtual table creation in which sensitive data can be stored and simplified query can be applied.(views) Sharing a common column in two or more tables(primary key and foreign key) Provides multi user accessibility that can be controlled by individual users

Tuple / Row A single row in the table is called as tuple. Each row represents the data of a single entity. Attribute / Column A column stores an attribute of the entity. For example, if details of students are stored then student name is an attribute; course is another attribute and so on. Column Name Each column in the table is given a name. This name is used to refer to value in the column. Table Name Each table is given a name. This is used to refer to the table. The name depicts the content of the table.

SUCCESS STORY ICICI Bank "Our business requirements were addressed well with minimum infrastructure. Sybase IQ is an excellent product."

ICICI Bank is the pioneer in implementing a data warehousing (DW) solution for banking in India. The enterprise-wide data warehouse at ICICI bank is powered by Sybase IQ, a highly optimized business intelligence, analytics and data warehousing solution for delivering dramatically faster results at a low cost. (Sybase IQ is a relational database software system used for business intelligence and data warehousing, produced by Sybase.)

Business Advantage ICICI bank has achieved tremendous improvement in system uptime and significant improvement in query performance over its previous Teradata implementation, in addition to the host of other benefits of the Sybase IQ data warehouse migration.

Key Benefits
Compresses data by over 60% Leverages scalability owing to its open system architecture Achieves trickle-feed loading Allows for simultaneous loading and querying Supports more than 150 users concurrently Reduces downtime by providing 24x7 availability Significantly improves query performance and response time Lowers cost of maintenance Supports heterogeneous environment as it is hardware and platform independent

The bank has achieved tremendous improvement in system uptime and significant improvement in query performance over its previous Teradata implementation. The number of concurrent users has increased without any performance degradation, scalability has been cost effective and is now easier, and the window of system availability has improved considerably in addition to the host of other benefits of the Sybase IQ data warehouse migration.

FAILURE STORY Oracle Security Breaches, Hacks


Some of the common exploits include: Tipping the user ID This is where a telnet or FTP access attempt tells you that you have entered a valid ID, but provided an improper password. No password disabling Hacker routines love systems that do not disable a user ID after repeated password attempts and run bots to try hundreds of thousands of password until they gain entry. Man-in-the middle attacks Hackers can gain access to computer systems by guessing the IP address of a connected user and sending a TCP/IP packet with that users IP information. Injection threats Many Oracle database systems have vulnerabilities where access to confidential Oracle data can be gained via a SQL injection

The Extortion Attack Case


In this case a hacker exploited a server vulnerability, siphoned confidential information from the corporate Oracle database, and shipped it to a foreign nation that did not honor U.S copyright law. A foreign cohort then extorted the company, proving that they had the Oracle data, and threatened to disclose proprietary secrets to a competitor unless they were paid a significant sum of money. Faced with the loss of their competitive advantage, the company contacted the FBI and was told that there was no reciprocity with the nation and that Interpol would not be able to investigate or arrest the extortionists. Even worse, Oracle management had not detected the leak, and had no idea how the thieves had accessed their Oracle database.

Surprisingly, this is not an uncommon occurrence, and many multi-national companies have accounts for bribery and extortion expenses because they are a legitimate requirement for doing business in some overseas nations. In this case the company quietly paid the extortionist in return for the promise to destroy the Oracle data and details about how the Oracle data was stolen.

THANK YOU!!!!!