. Some examples of databases you may encounter in your daily life are: • • • • • • a telephone book T. Guide airline reservation system motor vehicle registration records papers in your filing cabinet files on your computer hard drive.WHAT IS A DATABASE? A database is any organized collection of data.V.

– Data is converted into information. – Knowledge. information: What is the difference? • What is data? – Data can be defined in many ways. information evaluated and organized so that it can be used purposefully. and information is converted into knowledge. • What is information? – Information is data that have been organized and communicated in a coherent and meaningful manner. Information science defines data as unprocessed information.Data vs. .

Why do we need a database? • Keep records of our: – Clients – Staff – Volunteers • To keep a record of activities and interventions. • Perform research . • Develop reports. • Keep sales records.

What is a Database Management System? A DBMS is a collection of programs which: • provide management of databases • control access to data • contain a query language to retrieve information easily .

concurrency and locking • Data Security • Data Integrity • Fault tolerance and recovery .FEATURES • Support for large amount of data • Data sharing.

What is the ultimate purpose of a database management system? • Is to transform: Data Information Knowledge Action .

and the relationships between these -> The ER model • Physical database design Implementation of the conceptual design using a Database Management System .STEPS IN DATABASE DESIGN • Requirement analysis What does the user want? • Conceptual database design Defining the entities and attributes.

name. year.• Entity --> What is this table about? An entity is an object that exists and is distinguishable from other objects. as he can be uniquely identified as one particular person in the universe. For instance. advisor • • • • • TYPES: SIMPLE ATTRIBUTES COMPOSITE ATTRIBUTES SINGLE VALUED ATTRIBUTES MULTI VALUED ATTRIBUTES DERIVED ATTRIBUTES • Record (Tuple) --> A set of values for each attribute for one item •Relationship --> Definitions linking two or more tables . • Attribute (Field) --> an attribute is a property or characteristic. ID. department. John Harris with is an entity.

Super Key An attribute or a combination of attribute that is used to identify the records uniquely is known as Super Key.•Key --> When we give a name to the property of the entity it is called a key. TYPES OF KEYSPrimary Key The attribute or combination of attributes that uniquely identifies a row or record in a relation is known as primary key. .

Candidate Key or Alternate key A relation can have only one primary key. The table in which foreign key is created is called as dependent table. Foreign Key A foreign key is an attribute or combination of attribute in a relation whose value match a primary key in another relation. . The table to which foreign key is refers is known as parent table. It may contain many fields or combination of fields that can be used as primary key. One field or combination of fields is used as primary key. The fields or combination of fields that are not used as primary key are known as candidate key or alternate key.

Such a diagram consists of the following major component : • Rectangles which represent entity sets • Ellipses which represent attributes • Diamonds which represent relationship sets • Lines which link attributes to entity sets and entity sets to relationship set .ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM • An E-R diagram can express the overall logical structure of a database graphically. E-R diagrams are simple and clear—qualities that may well account in large part for the widespread use of the E-R model.

however.TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS • One to one :An entity in A is associated with at most one entity in B. can be associated with at most one entity in A . and an entity in B is associated with at most one entity in A • One to many: An entity in A is associated with any number (zero or more) of entities in B An entity in B.

An entity in B. can be associated with anynumber (zero or more) of entities in A • Many to many: An entity in A is associated with any number (zero or more) of entities in B.• Many to one: An entity in A is associated with at most one entity in B. and an entity inB is associatedwith any number (zero or more) of entities in A. . however.

. which consists of two entity sets. related through a binary relationship set borrower . The attributes associated with loan are loan-number and amount. The attributes of an entity set that are members of the primary key are underlined.customer-name. The attributes associated with customer arecustomer-id .EXAMPLE Consider the entity-relationship diagram in Figure below.customer and loan.customerstreet . andcustomer-city.

F. Designed by E. .Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) A DBMS that is based on relational model is called as RDBMS. Codd. relational model is based on the theory of sets and relations of mathematics. Relation model is most successful moDE.

Each row contains data related to an entity such as a student. A table is a two dimensional array containing rows and columns.• Relational model represents data in the form a table. It doesn’t bInd data wIth relationship between data item. Instead it allows you to have dynamic relationship between entities using the values of the columns. . Each column contains the data related to a single attribute of the entity such as student name.

to uniquely identify the rows •Creates indexes for quicker data retrieval •Provides a virtual table creation in which sensitive data can be stored and simplified query can be applied.FEATURES •Provides data to be stored in tables •Persists data in the form of rows and columns •Provides facility primary key.(views) •Sharing a common column in two or more tables(primary key and foreign key) •Provides multi user accessibility that can be controlled by individual users .

if details of students are stored then student name is an attribute. Table Name Each table is given a name. Each row represents the data of a single entity. This name is used to refer to value in the column. Attribute / Column A column stores an attribute of the entity. Column Name Each column in the table is given a name. This is used to refer to the table. . For example. The name depicts the content of the table.Tuple / Row A single row in the table is called as tuple. course is another attribute and so on.

SUCCESS STORY ICICI Bank "Our business requirements were addressed well with minimum infrastructure. produced by Sybase. The enterprise-wide data warehouse at ICICI bank is powered by Sybase IQ. analytics and data warehousing solution for delivering dramatically faster results at a low cost. (Sybase IQ is a relational database software system used for business intelligence and data warehousing. Sybase IQ is an excellent product. a highly optimized business intelligence." • ICICI Bank is the pioneer in implementing a data warehousing (DW) solution for banking in India.) .

in addition to the host of other benefits of the Sybase IQ data warehouse migration.Business Advantage • ICICI bank has achieved tremendous improvement in system uptime and significant improvement in query performance over its previous Teradata implementation. .

Key Benefits • Compresses data by over 60% • Leverages scalability owing to its open system architecture • Achieves trickle-feed loading • Allows for simultaneous loading and querying • Supports more than 150 users concurrently • Reduces downtime by providing 24x7 availability • Significantly improves query performance and response time • Lowers cost of maintenance • Supports heterogeneous environment as it is hardware and platform independent .

scalability has been cost effective and is now easier. The number of concurrent users has increased without any performance degradation. and the window of system availability has improved considerably in addition to the host of other benefits of the Sybase IQ data warehouse migration. .• The bank has achieved tremendous improvement in system uptime and significant improvement in query performance over its previous Teradata implementation.

but provided an improper password.FAILURE STORY Oracle Security Breaches. • Man-in-the middle attacks – Hackers can gain access to computer systems by guessing the IP address of a connected user and sending a TCP/IP packet with that users IP information. • Injection threats – Many Oracle database systems have vulnerabilities where access to confidential Oracle data can be gained via a SQL injection . • No password disabling – Hacker routines love systems that do not disable a user ID after repeated password attempts and run bots to try hundreds of thousands of password until they gain entry. Hacks Some of the common exploits include: • Tipping the user ID – This is where a telnet or FTP access attempt tells you that you have entered a valid ID.

• Faced with the loss of their competitive advantage. proving that they had the Oracle data. Even worse. the company contacted the FBI and was told that there was no reciprocity with the nation and that Interpol would not be able to investigate or arrest the extortionists. siphoned confidential information from the corporate Oracle database. Oracle management had not detected the leak. and threatened to disclose proprietary secrets to a competitor unless they were paid a significant sum of money.The Extortion Attack Case • In this case a hacker exploited a server vulnerability. and had no idea how the thieves had accessed their Oracle database.S copyright law. and shipped it to a foreign nation that did not honor U. . A foreign cohort then extorted the company.

• Surprisingly. and many multi-national companies have accounts for bribery and extortion expenses because they are a legitimate requirement for doing business in some overseas nations. this is not an uncommon occurrence. In this case the company quietly paid the extortionist in return for the promise to destroy the Oracle data and details about how the Oracle data was stolen. .

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