Phrases and Clauses

st 1 Paragraph .

1st Paragraph. 1st sentence: The association between migraine and ischemic vascular events has been studied for many years. [independent clause] The association [noun phrase] Between migraine and ischemic vascular events [prepositional phrase] has been studied [verb phrase] for many years [prepositional phrase] .

[Dependent clause] Migraine with aura (MA) is an established risk factor for subclinical ischemic Lesions of the brain.1st Paragraph. as well as for ischemic stroke. 2nd sentence: Although the link between migraine without aura (MO) and cardiovascular events may be disputed. [Independent clause] Although the link [noun phrase] Between migraine without aura and cardiovascular events [prepositional phrase] May be disputed [ Verb phrase] Since the evidence [noun phrase] is not consistent [verb phrase] . [Dependent clause] since the evidence is not consistent. particularly among women of younger age.

2nd sentence: migraine with aura [noun phrase] is an established risk factor [verb phrase] for subclinical ischemic lesions [prepositional phrase] of the brain [prepositional phrase] for ischemic stroke [prepositional phrase] among women [prepositional phrase] of younger age [prepositional phrase] .1st Paragraph.

1st Paragraph. 3rd sentence: The association has also been shown in men. [independent clause] The association [noun phrase] has also been shown [verb phrase] in men [prepositional phrase] .

1st Paragraph. mostly MA. [independent clause] Recent evidence [noun phrase] has also linked migraine [verb phrase] Mostly MA [adverbial phrase] to a broader range [prepositional phrase] of ischemic vascular disorders [prepositional phrase] Including coronary disease [noun phrase] . 4th sentence: Recent evidence has also linked migraine. to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including coronary disease.

1st Paragraph. 5th sentence: Studies of subclinical markers of vascular disease show that migraine is associated with retinopathy and with small vessels arteriolar intimae thickening. [independent clause] Studies of subclinical markers [noun phrase] of vascular disease [prepositional phrase] show that migraine [verb phrase] is associated [verb phrase] with retinopathy [prepositional phrase] with small vessels arteriolar intimae thickening [prepositional phrase] .

2nd Paragraph: .

2nd Paragraph. [independent clause] The mechanisms [noun phrase] link migraine [verb phrase] Especially MA [adverbial phrase] to ischemic vascular disease [prepositional phrase] remain uncertain [verb phrase] are likely [verb phrase] to be complex [prepositional phrase] . especially MA. to ischemic vascular disease remain uncertain and are likely to be complex. 1st sentence: The mechanisms that link migraine.

[Independent clause] Cortical spreading depression [noun phrase] the presumed substrate [noun phrase] of aura [prepositional phrase] may predispose [verb phrase] to brain lesions [prepositional phrase] By reducing cerebral blood flow [verb phrase] .2nd Paragraph. may predispose to brain lesions by reducing cerebral blood flow and by activating a cascade of inflammatory events. the presumed substrate of aura. 2nd sentence: Cortical spreading depression (CSD).

2nd Paragraph. 2nd sentence: By activating [verb phrase] a cascade [noun phrase] of inflammatory events [prepositional phrase] .

3rd sentence: It is more difficult to implicate CSD in vascular events outside the brain (i. and other mechanisms may be of It has importance. ischemic heart disease).2nd Paragraph..e. [independent clause] It is more difficult [verb phrase] to implicate CSD [prepositional phrase] in vascular events [prepositional phrase] outside the brain [prepositional phrase] And other mechanisms [noun phrase] May be [verb phrase] Of it [prepositional phrase] has importance [verb phrase] .

has also been suggested [verb phrase] that persons [noun phrase] with MA [prepositional phrase] have a higher prevalence [verb phrase] of risk factors [prepositional phrase] to be associated [prepositional phrase] with cardiovascular disease [prepositional phrase] . MA). including hypertension. and there is an ongoing discussion about whether migraine overall. or specific migraine subtypes (e. and hyperlipidemia. associates with specific genotypes that have been linked with increased risk of CVD.2nd Paragraph. diabetes.g.. 4th sentence: It also been suggested that persons with MA have a higher prevalence of risk factors known to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD).

diabetes. 4th sentence: Including hypertension.2nd Paragraph. and hyperlipidemia [noun phrase] is an ongoing discussion [verb phrase] about whether migraine overall [prepositional phrase] specific migraine subtypes [noun phrase] associates with specific genotypes [verb phrase] have been linked [verb phrase] with increased risk [prepositional phrase] of CVD [prepositional phrase] with specific genotypes [prepositional phrase] .

4th sentence: It has also been suggested that persons with MA have a higher prevalence of risk factors known to be associated with cardiovascular disease including hypertension. diabetes. and hyperlipidemia[independent clause] there is an ongoing discussion [independent clause] about whether migraine overall. MA). associates with specific genotypes that have been linked with increased risk of CVD [dependent clause] .2nd Paragraph.g.. or specific migraine subtypes(e.

16 Verb.2 Adjectivial.21 Prepositional .Phrases • • • • • Noun.0 .31 Adverbial.

Clauses • Dependent.10 .3 • Independent.

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