# Operational amplifiers

Building blocks of servos

Operational amplifiers (Op-amps) Want perfect amplifier • Infinite gain • Infinite input impedance – will not load down source Op amp with feedback Summing junction Rf • Zero output impedance – will drive anything Vin Rin V 1 Iin If inverting + Vout non-inverting Have operational amplifiers • Gain ~ 106 • Input impedance ~ 100 M W • Output impedance ~ 100 W Problems • Gain too high – slightest input noise causes max output • Other problems to be discussed later Solutions • Use feedback • Gain depends only on resistance: Rf / Rin – can control precisely Op amp V1 = (Vout .Vin) Rin/(Rin+Rf) + Vin Vout = -A V1 Vout = -Vin (Rf / Rin) / [1 + (1+ Rf / Rin)/A] Small gain: Vout = -A Vin Rf / (Rf + Rin) ~ divider Large gain: Vout = -Vin (Rf / Rin) Note: V1 = -Vout / A ~ 0 .

Differential amplifier • Op amp output actually depends on voltage difference at two inputs • Vout = .(Vin1 .Vin2) (Rf / Rin) • Insensitivity to common voltage at both inputs = CMRR • Real op amps have problems with unbalanced input impedance Solution: • Add input resistor and pot. Non-ideal op-amp Rf Ideal op-amp circuit Vin1 Vin2 Rin Rf Vin1 Rin Vout Rin V 1 inverting + ~ Rf + Vout non-inverting Resistors to compensate for non-ideal op-amp Vin2 . • Op amp with built-in resistors = instrumentation amp.

Vout is integral of Iin Gain response – integration speed ~ 1 / RinCf >60dB log(Vout/Vin) Single-pole rolloff 6 dB/octave = 10 dB/decade RC Cf If Vin Rin V 1 Iin Unity gain at f = 1 / 2 p RC log( f ) Phase response 0 + Vout Phase shift log( f ) 0 degrees -90 degrees .Integrators • Put capacitor in op amp feedback path • Vout = .Vin / (2 p j f C Rin) • Similar to low pass filter in high frequency limit – except applies to low frequencies also – can show large gain near dc • Recall V1 ~ 0 forces Iin = -Ifeedback • Result is integrator Integrator – charge on capacitor is integral of If – since Vout = Q/Cf.Vin (Zf / Rin) = .

Shunted integrator • Limit dc gain • Advantages: – dc input voltage no longer saturates op amp output – prevents servo runaway • Dis-advantages – long term errors not well corrected by servo Gain response Shunted integrator Rf log(Vout/Vin) Max gain = Rf/Rin at f < 1 / 2 p RfCf Cf If Vin Rin V 1 Iin 0 log( f ) Phase response Unity gain at f = 1 / 2 p RinCf + Vout Phase shift log( f ) 0 degrees -90 degrees .

Real op amp Op amp without feedback • Acts like shunted integrator Stability condition: • unity gain freq. before second pole • otherwise feedback becomes positive – oscillation Gain response Max gain log(Vout/Vin) Single pole 6 dB Unity gain 0 log( f ) Double pole 12 dB Real op amp Vin + Vout Phase shift Phase response 0 degrees log( f ) -90 degrees -180 degrees .

inductor in feedback • Overall positive phase – analog to faster than light propagation – output anticipates input log(Vout/Vin) Gain response Single pole 6 dB Min gain Integrator with lead Cf If Vin Rf 0 log( f ) Rin V 1 Iin + Phase response Vout Phase shift log( f ) 0 degrees -90 degrees .Integrator with lead High frequency gain has minimum value Purpose: • Provides phase lead • Can compensate for pole in servo Alternate circuits for lead • Capacitor at input.

Summing amplifier • High gain forces V1 ~ 0 • Feedback current must cancel input current • Generalize to multiple inputs – Vout = -Rfeedback S Iin = -(Rf / Rin) SVin – Works because V1 ~ 0 Op amp Rf Vin Rin If Iin V1 inverting + Vout non-inverting • Summing amplifier – Op amp input is summing junction – Useful for combining multiple inputs Summing amplifier Vin1 Vin2 Vin3 Rin1 Summing junction Rf Rin2 Rin3 Iin V1 If + Vout .

Drift-compensated integrator Real op amps have leakage current • Can saturate integrator • Compensate with dc current to summing junction Drift-compensated integrator Cf Vin Rin Iin If V1 +V Integrator leakage compensation - Vout Rc Ic + -V .

voltage out – gain expressed in Ohms Current source Vsource Zsource Rf If Iin V1 inverting + Vout non-inverting Iin V1 .Trans-impedance amplifiers • Input is current source – model as voltage source with high impedance – Iin = Vsource / Zsource – Vout = -Zfeedback Vsource/ Zsource = -Iin Zfeedback Trans-impedance amplifier • Trans-impedance amplifier – current in.

circuit . – Amplifies high freq noise – Oscillation Photo-diode amplifier Shunt capacitor light Gain response Unshunted • Solution: – Shunt capacitor in feedback Cs Rf If Vbias Ipd log(Vout/Iin) + Vout Shunted log( f ) Rpd Ipd Cpd Photo-diode equiv.Photodiode amplifier • Photodiode like current source but with capacitor • Input capacitor causes op amp gain to diverge at high freq.

Integrator design tips Shunting switch with small value resistor • Discharges capacitor – initialize integrator/ servo – simplify servo testing allow rest of circuit Resistors on power supply rails • Limits current to saturated op amp – prevents burn out Shunt switch on integrator Capacitors on supply rails • Reduces noise Note on capacitors • High values – electrolytic. polar – leakage resistance Rs switch Cf If Rin V 1 Iin Filtered and limited supply rails +15V • Use low value in parallel Vin + Vout -15V .