DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS PHYS 471 SOLAR ENERGY-1
PREPARED BY : SOYDAN CERAN INSTRUCTOR : PROF. DR. AHMET ECEVİT
Table of Content
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Introduction History of greenhouses Basic plant growth Greenhouse design Styles of greenhouses Active and passive greenhouses Insulation of greenhouses Ventilation of greenhouses Greenhouses in our country Cost of greenhouses and Conclusion References
At first, lets start with greenhouse effect on fig. 1 . Heat from the sun passes through the atmosphere, warming it up, and most of it warms the surface of the planet. As the Earth warms up, it emits heat in the form of infra-red radiation much like a hot pan emits heat even after it's taken away from the cooker. Some of this heat is trapped by the atmosphere, but the rest escapes into space. The so-called "greenhouse gases" make the atmosphere trap more of this radiation, so it gradually warms up more than it should .
Figure 1. Greenhouse effect.
In tropical countries ambient temperature is quite high so summer geenhouses can be designed for reducing the inside temperature and the plants receive sufficient of sunlight required for photosynthesis .Solar greenhouses are the enclosures where crops. As an example. 2 . vegetables or flowers are provided proper environment under adverse climatic conditions for plant growth and production.
. Certainly all greenhouses receive necessary sunlight from the sun required for photosynthesis and also supplementary heat during cold months from sun. a greenhouse is shown in fig.
A greenhouse for flowers.Figure 2.
grapes and flowers.1.History of greenhouses
Greenhouse industry was first developed in Holland during the 17th century. After the years 1900 large area greenhouses construction was started .
. In 1940 the greenhouses were used in Antalya . They grow vegetables. During the years 1800-1900 several enviromental control tecniques were developed in Europe and North America.
Light intensity for photosynthesis Temperature for enzymes Humidity The amount of CO2 Air movement Water and nutriens .3.
.Basic plant growth
There are many parameters affecting the plant growth.
Now. we will discuss a few important parameters. Orientation and tilt Modes of heat transfer Glass or plastic glazing materials Heat storage in greenhouse .
. We can manipulate this parameters for our purposes and with respect to outer conditions.4.Greenhouse design
Many parameters are to be considered the design of a greenhouses.
it is not possible to orient greenhouse in the o east-west direction we can change direction up to 20 .1. a north-south oriented greenhouse will provide more sunlight over the complete year compared to eastwest oriented greenhouse. ORIENTATION Actually. For receiving maximum radiation in winter.4. the greenhouse should face east-west direction.If due to local conditions.Orientation and tilt
For optimum temperature and light the orientation and tilt are important.
optimum angle of tilt is equal to latitude of place plus 15o. TILT From solar radiation receipt point of view. For winter use. The impotance of latitude is shown in fig. The slope of the greenhouse roof should be so selected that the angle of incidence of sun rays remains within 30o. 3 .
.the angle of the roof of greenhouse is important.
. Solar path at 40° north latitude.
it is necessary to be carefull about around of greenhouse since the high buildings may prevent the sunlight as shown in fig. 4 .Also.
. Select location carefully.
4. Increasing the glazing area means increasing heat loss from greenhouse to outside. The energy flow diagram of a greenhouse is shown fig.In order to optimum sunlight and temperature glazing area must be optimum.Modes of heat transfer
The greenhouse should be designed to maximize the input of solar radiation which will require large glazing area.2. 5 .
Energy flow in a solar greenhouse.Figure 5.
So the structure of glass made up greenhouses is different from plastic made up greenhouses.3. Also. glass is heavy material with respect to plastic.
. glass can hold more long wave radiation inside greenhouses than plastic as shown in table 1 .Glass or plastic greenhouses
Both the glass and plastic greenhouses are made but plastic greenhouses are prefered because of their low initial capital cost.4. Morever.
Transmittance of glazing materials.
. The flexibility of plastic is an advantage.
Apperance of glass made up greenhouse is better as shown in fig. 6  and fig.
A glass greenhouse.
A plastic greenhouse.Figure 7.
masonary wall. as shown in fig.4. A few parameters of heat storage materials are given below. 8 . etc . oil. in the greenhouse can be maintained and the energy can be conserved by using a suitable thermal energy device.Heat storage in the greenhouse
The temperature. The position of thermal storage mass in the greenhouse is very important in efficient storing and distrubiting the heat .
.4. soil. The different heat storage materials proposed for use in the greenhouse are sensible heat storage materials like water. adobe. rock.
Heat storage by storage materials.
it store less heat with small time interval. the ground in the greenhouse when exposed to the sun also stores the heat and the amount of heat storage depends on the moisture content of the soil . The large size means. The size of storage materials is also important. Actually.
. it can store more heat with more time but if it is small.
Styles of greenhouses
With respect to their apearance. 10.
. The heat loss in this type is very low. They are lean-to (attached) and freestanding greenhouses. two main styles greenhouses exist. the greenhouse is put against the wall of building and thus makes use of maximum sun light and minimum roof support sutructure.this style is not for commercial purpose.5. 9 and fig. Usually. LEAN-TO DESIGN In the lean-to design as shown in fig.
.Figure 9. Different types of attached greenhouse .
. An attached greenhouse .
11. this greenhouses are constructed for commercial purposes.
. greenhouse is not attached a buildings. FREESTANDING DESIGN In this design. Usually. as shown in fig.
A freestanding greenhouse .
are called as active type. in which auxiliary energy is used for distribution.Active and passive greenhouses
ACTIVE GREENHOUSES The greenhouses. An active method for solar heating greenhouses uses “subterranean heating”.
.6. water or phase change materials which moves through the pipes buried in the floor . This method involves forcing solar heated air.
The energy distiribution is obtained by convection and heat storage materials. PASIVE GREENHOUSES In that kind of greenhouses there is no use of auxiliary energy for disturibution.
look for materials that provide both good light transmission and insulating value. Double or triple glazing provides better insulationthan single glazing .7. For example. As mentioned previously.Insulation
Obviously. It can also be the greatest area for heat loss. one of the most imortant thing about performance of greenhouses is their insulation. polyethylene films referred to as "thermal films" have an additive that helps reduce heat loss. When selecting glazing for your greenhouse. WALL AND FLOOR INSULATION • Glazing is what allows light and heat into a solar greenhouse. increasing the insulating value of glazing often decreases the amount of sunlight entering the greenhouse.
.• Greenhouse curtains limit the amount of heat lost through greenhouse glazing during the night and on cloudy days. you can reduce the heat that would otherwise be lost through the glazing . The various conservation techniques and resulting percentage annual saving are given in table 2 . By installing greenhouse insulation sheets made from 6 cm thick bats of polystyrene.
.Table 2. Annual percercent saving with extra insulator.
However. brick. they can quickly lose heat to the ground if there is not an insulating barrier between the flooring and the soil.
. To protect against heat loss. insulate footings and the foundation with 3.5 cm to 7cm sheets of rigid insulation or with a 15 cm wide trench filled with pumice stone . masonry or flagstone serves as a good heat sink.On greenhouse floors.
as shown in fig. provide excellent insulation against both cold winter weather and the heat of summer. They also provide good protection against windy conditions . 12.
. Underground or bermed greenhouses.EXTERNAL INSULATING You can also insulate your greenhouse by burying part of the base in the ground or building it into the side of a southfacing hill. Straw bales or similar insulating material can also be placed along the unglazed outside walls to reduce heat loss from the greenhouse.
Structure of an underground greenhouse .Figure 12.
fans are necessary to move air through the greenhouse. while ridge vents allow the rising hot air to escape. Some wind is necessary for this type of ventilation system to function effectively. On still. Air exchange is also critical in providing plants with adequate levels of carbon dioxide and controlling humidity. windless days.
. Roof ridge and sidewall vents provide natural ventilation.8. The sidewall vents allow cool air to flow into the sides of the greenhouse.Ventilation
A building designed to collect heat when temperatures are cold also needs to be able to vent heat when temperatures are warm. The area of the venting should be equal to between 1/5 to 1/6 of the greenhouse floor area .
Ventilation requirements vary with the weather and season. 1 to 1½ air volume changes per minute are needed.
. 20 to 30 percent of one air volume exchange per minute is sufficient for mixing in cool air without chilling the plants. Small greenhouses need the larger amount.
Mechanical ventilation uses an exhaust fan to move air out one end of the greenhouse while outside air enters the other end through motorized inlet louvers. One must decide how much the greenhouse will be used. In winter. In summer. which cools air and increases humidity. Heat is removed from the air to change water from liquid to a vapor . Exhaust fans should be sized to exchange the total volume of air in greenhouse each minute. Small package evaporative coolers have a fan and evaporative pad in one box to evaporate water.
are shown in fig.The different greenhouses
The other kinds of greenhouses which have different design and working principles. 13.9.
Brace solar greenhouse design
.Figure 14. Kısr solar greenhouse design.
Fethiye are the sites where greenhouses are the most important source of income. greenhouses is common on the mediterranean region and where there exist geothermal energy.The total greenhouse area in our country is more than 40000 hectar.
. 15 shows the greenhouses in Anamur . Anamur. Fig.10.Greenhouses in our country
In our country.
There are large number of greenhouses in Anamur .Figure 13.
plastic greenhouse is 1000 YTL .10.The area.Now.
. in our country avarage cost of a 240 m2.Cost
The cost is depend large number of paramaters. selection of glazing materials and also using extra insulating materials.
11. fruits. and flovers which are out of season or from another climate condition. So for obtaining the vegetables. we have to use and develop greenhouses.
. It provides ideal environment for plants in all year and helps to obtain maximum efficient from plants.Conclusion
Solar greenhouse technology is one way of the using solar energy.
html#a 2. 1987. http://www. http://attra.edu.html
4.okanagan.mvutd.bc. 3. Garg. Advance in Solar Energy Technology.mu. Reidel Publishing Company.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereand climate/greenhouse. http://www.edu/~agexten/hortcult/greenhou/building
7. Dordrecht: D. http://www.P. http://www.ncat.wvu. H.org/attra-pub/solar-gh.tr/departments/fethiye/seracilik 5.org/solar/pic/greenhouse.com/UMreport.bc.hobby-greenhouse.htm
1.html 6. http://royal.