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Geography GCSE Revision

Edexcel Specification A

CDunne/TYork (c)2008

Getting Organised!
E.G. 16/04 23/04 30/04 07/05 14/05 21/05
CDunne/TYork (c)2008








the employment no·s etc. Mention the cities. industrial estates etc? Fiat in Brazil ² Similar details as above. CDunne/TYork (c)2008 . which companies? Where were they located? Names of roads.CAP Case Studies Rice farming in the Philippines EU changes in UK What happened to Mr Redfern·s farm? Informal/Formal industry DETAILS = Marks Bracknell.The Economic World Economic Systems Sectors of Industry Farming Characteristics of Farming Secondary Industries Factors affecting location of secondary activities ICT in Bracknell Employment structure as an How farming is changing indicator of differences between countries How patterns change over time EU .

Sectors of Industry Most of this section is examined on paper 3H/1F     What are they? How do employment patterns differ between countries? How do employment patterns change over time? How can you display all of this graphically? CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .

g. Enterprise: ‡Arable ‡Pastoral ‡Mixed 2. ploughing.g. irrigation ‡Rearing of animals Feedback Do you know your case studies? Intensive Wet Rice Farming Philippines EU Changes in the UK (CAP) CAP ² Make sure you know what is this and what changes it brought: Diversification Set-aside Quotas CDunne/TYork (c)2008 List examples of other primary activities. . milk / meat ‡ Outputs: a) To sell b) Farmer·s own use Factors Affecting Farming Social & Economic Factors ‡Labour ‡Capital (money ‡Technology ‡Markets ‡Government Environmental Factors ‡Climate ‡Relief ‡Soil Types of Agriculture 1. Intensity of Production: ‡Intensive ‡Extensive 3. Subsistence/Commercial Processes ‡Cultivation of crops e.Economic World PRIMARY ACTIVITY Key Q·s: Farming systems have different characteristics (What are they?) All farming systems have been experiencing change (What are they?) Farming as a System Inputs ‡Sunlight ‡Rainfall / water supply ‡Land / soil ‡Labour (workforce) ‡Capital (money) ‡Seeds / fertiliser / pesticides ‡animals Outputs ‡ Crops ‡ Animals ‡ Animal products e.

California Sahara Desert . Australia Maasai in Kenya Amerindians in Amazonia Rice farming in the Ganges Delta Sugar cane in Brazil Beef on the Pampas Canadian Prairies Netherlands Southern Italy Nile Valley.Types of Farming Global General Knowledge Specialisation Arable Pastoral Mixed Economic Status: Commercial farming Subsistence farming Intensity of Land Use: Extensive Intensive Political Organic What do all of these produce? Type of Farming Nomadic Hunting Nomadic herding Shifting cultivation Intensive subsistence agriculture Plantation agriculture Livestock ranching (commercial pastoral) Cereal cultivation Mixed farming Mediterranean agriculture Irrigation Unsuitable CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Example Aborigines.

Factors Affecting Farming Relief Soils Fertiliser Marketing Physical Factors Temperature Rainfall Human Factors Competition for land Government aid Mechanisation Size of farm CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .

Wet Rice Farming    Location Maximo Casiendo s farm at Barangay Bay The Flora Community CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .

4. West Midlands But where is this??? Sheep worth less than crisps! Set aside: EU funded scheme to reduce surpluses Farmers are paid not to grow anything for 5 years (left fallow) Payment = up to £300 per year! Diversification to Caravans and B&B Renting land out for Grazing BUT Think about what has happened in 2008 to farming and food CDunne/TYork (c)2008 . 5. 6. 2.Case Study: Changes affecting Farming Systems in the EU    1. 3. Home Farm.

2. 5. Created in 1962 Aims: To protect farmers incomes To ensure reasonable and steady prices for consumers To increase production to provide sufficient food supplies Grants and subsidies money for farmers who farm in difficult areas Price support a guaranteed minimum price for agricultural produce (may cause surpluses Not sustainable big changes in current news articles look them up. CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .Common Agricultural Policy   1. 6. 3. 4.

garden centres and farm shops Tea shops Agribusinesses: LargeLarge-scale.Case Study: How is Farming Changing?  1. Diversification: This is when farmers develop business initiatives other than farming Examples: Barns converted in to holiday cottages. 2. a) b)  1. 5. 3. 4. 2. highly efficient farms Organised on scientific and business principles Includes a chain of suppliers and retailers Belongs to a group of other farms Able to reduce cost of inputs economies of scale CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .

What does CAP stand for? 5. Explain what is meant by the following: a) Intensive farms b) Extensive farms c) Subsistence farms d) Commercial farms 4.Quick Quiz 1. Make a list of all the factors that affect farming you mind find it easier to split them into physical and human factors. What is diversification? CDunne/TYork (c)2008 . 2. What are: a) Arable farms b) Pastoral farms c) Mixed farms? 3.

Factors affecting the location of secondary industries Land Raw materials Market What is needed? Energy Environment Labour Capital Transport/communications (links) CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .

Argos. Stafford Profit Reinvested Employment Structure ² label and explain.g. The location of distribution industries What other types of economic activity are there? Industry as a System Inputs ‡Raw materials ‡Land ‡Labour ‡Power ‡Transport ‡Capital (money) Outputs ‡ Finished product for the consumer or to other industries ‡ Waste products Processes Making the goods ‡Process ‡Packaging ‡Distribution Location of Industry Where? Why? Case Studies: Heavy industry e. iron & steel Industry Footloose Industry e. The first ¶chunk· is primary.g.g.The Economic World ² SECONDARY ACTIVITIES Economic Activities: 1. Hi-tech industry Distribution Industry e. The location of manufacturing industries 2. the second secondary and the last tertiary. Profit or Loss Uganda Can you interpret a Triangular Graph? UK CDunne/TYork (c)2008 ©C Dunne 2005 .

g. reThese may be described as footloose because they are not really restricted by the location factors of raw materials e. Like what? Where? YOU NEED TO KNOW THIS CASE STUDY! CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .HighHigh-Tech Industries Bracknell Computer Development       Why have they located here? (Where is it exactly?) The following may give you a few clues but make sure you have re-read the case study. pc factories Tend to opt for locations near major route ways e. Also locate near university sites (Which Ones?) research facilities Would prefer sites that area aesthetically pleasing for their workers.g. M4 / M11 corridors You must mention the roads.

Formal and Informal sectors    What are the differences? What characterises an informal sector job? What is the advantage of a formal sector job? CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .

Some industries are classed as Heavy Industry e. Ebbw Vale. 7. 3.g. 6. South Wales e. 8. 5. Iron and steel   1. 4. 2. Merthyr Tydfil Natural Advantages: Coalfields Limestone Iron ore Flat site (of Valley) River (Rhonda) cooling finished product Local settlements work force Port (gateway to the British Empire market) These areas are where industry used to be but then it moved for several reasons.g. CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .

seams were too thin to mine or inaccessible (making it more expensive to mine) Original valley site not big enough for modern factories Coastal areas were better as they were the areas where relatively cheap imported materials were coming in There were better places in the world to make things that were cheaper Place like Britain got rid of lots of their industries to countries like Brazil. CDunne/TYork (c)2008 . market not as strong Coal and iron ore reserves were becoming exhausted (running out!).How did location factors change?      Empire countries gained independence more competition.

Brazil .Fiat    What is a Trans National Company (TNC) Why did Fiat move from Italy to Brazil? Why did Fiat expand in Brazil? CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .

Quick Quiz        Name the 4 types of industry How does this classification help when talking about the employment structure and development of a country? Briefly define/explain the term system List the important factors when considering the location of industry What is heavy industry? Which case study? Where? Why? What happened? What is a footloose industry? CDunne/TYork (c)2008 .