Wind loading and structural response
Lecture 8 Dr. J.D. Holmes
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Streamlined body
•  flow follows contours of body :
• Bluff body
•  flow separates :
• vortices formed by rolling up of shear layers  may reattach
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Bernoulli’s equation :
applicable in inviscid (zero viscosity) and irrotational (zero vorticity) flow
 outside of boundary layers and free shear layers
constant a
2
1
2
= + U p
a
µ
2
0 0
2
2
1
2
1
U p U p
a a
µ µ + = +
p
0
and U
0
are pressure and velocity in region outside of influence of body
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Surface pressure coefficient :
in regions in which Bernoulli’s Equation is valid :
approximately valid in separated flows if U is taken as velocity in flow just
outside adjacent shear layer
2
0
0
2
1
U
p p
C
a
p
µ
÷
=
( )
2
0
2
0
2 2
0
1
2
1
2
1


.

\

÷ =
÷
=
U
U
U
U U
C
a
a
p
µ
µ
U = 0 C
p
= 1.0 (stagnation point)
U > U
0
C
p
< 0
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Force coefficient :
reference area, A,  arbitary but often projected area
b = reference length  often projected width normal to wind
Force per unit length coefficient :
A U
F
C
a
F
2
0
2
1
µ
=
b U
f
C
a
f
2
0
2
1
µ
=
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Wind axes :
o = angle of attack
• Body axes :
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Relationship between force coefficients in two axes systems :
F
x
= D cos o  L sin o
F
y
= D sin o  L cos o
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Dependence of pressure/force coefficients on other nondimensional
groups :
C
p
= f(t
1
, t
2
, t
3
etc…)
Examples of t’s :
h/z
o
 Jensen Number (h is height of building)
I
u
, I
v
, I
w
 turbulence intensities
l
u
/h, l
v
/h, l
w
/h  turbulence length scale ratios
Uh/u  Reynolds Number (u is kinematic viscosity)
In wind tunnel testing  try to match t’s in full scale and model scale
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Reynolds Number
Re = Uh/u = µ
a
Uh/µ
u = kinematic viscosity µ = dynamic viscosity
Reynolds Number represents a ratio of inertial forces to viscous
forces in the flow
fullscale values of Re cannot be matched in wind tunnel tests
dependence of flow on Re  less for sharpedged bluff bodies,
and very turbulent flow
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Jensen Number
Je = h/z
0
z
0
= roughness length
Applicable only to bluff bodies immersed in a turbulent boundary
layer (fullscale or windtunnel)
Lower values of Je  steeper mean speed profile, higher turbulence
Ref. Lecture 6, Chapter 3
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Flat plates and walls normal to flow
Advertising hoardings, freestanding walls
Drag force, D = (p
W
 p
L
) A
p
W
= average pressure on windward wall
p
L
= average pressure on leeward wall
dividing both sides by (1/2) µ
a
U
2
A
:
C
D
= C
p,W
– C
p,L
= C
p,W
+ (– C
p,L
)
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Flat plates and walls normal to flow
Turbulence decreases (more negative) leeward side or ‘base’
pressure by increasing entrainment of flow from wake by
‘shear’ layers
Smooth flow
C
D
= 1.1
SQUARE PLATE
Turbulent flow
C
D
= 1.2
Shear layer
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Flat plates and walls normal to flow
No flow path around the sides (out of screen)  strong vortex generation
and shedding  lower base pressure  higher drag
C
D
= 1.9
Smooth flow
TWODIMENSIONAL PLATE
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Flat plates and walls normal to flow
Splitter plate induces reattachment of flow  weaker, smaller vortices 
lower drag
TWODIMENSIONAL PLATE
C
D
= 1.4
splitter plate
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• walls normal to flow
Walls on ground  boundary layer flow : U taken as U
h
(top of wall)
C
D
= 1.2
TWODIMENSIONAL WALL
Ground
SQUARE WALL
C
D
= 1.1
Ground
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• walls normal to flow
Only slight dependency of C
D
on length / height (b/h)
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• two square plates in series normal to flow
acts like a single plate
Spacing ÷ 0
b Combined C
d
~ 1.1
1.5b
Combined C
d
~ 0.8
combined drag is less
than single plate
(critical spacing = 1.5b)
Spacing ÷ ·
Combined C
d
~ 2.2
acts like two single plates
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• porous plate
C
D
,
o
= C
D
. K
p
K
p
= porosity factor,
K
p
~ 1 (1o)
2
K
p :
not sensitive to shape of openings
(plate could be a truss with linear members)
o = solidity = solid area/total area
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• inclined plate
Primarily normal force
(negligible tangential component)
For angle of attack, o < 10 degrees,
Centre of pressure at h/4 from leading edge
C
N
~ 2t o
(o in radians)
C
N
~ 2to
o
4
h
reference area : plan area normal to surface
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• inclined plate
As o increases, centre of pressure moves
towards centre of plate
C
N
= 1.5
45
o
0.4h
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• rectangular prism (two dimensional)
Maximum C
d
at d/b ~0.7
3
2
1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
d/b
C
d
Smooth flow
10
5
<Re<10
6
b
d
For d/b > 0.7, shear layers reattach to sides of prism  drag is lower
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• rectangular prism (two dimensional)
Effect of turbulence
With increasing turbulence intensity, d/b ratio for maximum C
d
falls
4
3
2
1
0
0 4 8 12 16 20
I
u
(%)
C
d
0.33
0.50
0.62
1.0
b
d
Turbulence promotes increased curvature of shear layers 
reattachment occurs at lower d/b ratio (shorter afterbody length)
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• rectangular prism (two dimensional)
Effect of turbulence
Partial
reattachment
lower drag
Higher
drag
d/b ~ 0.5
Higher
drag
Lower
drag
Decreased radius of curvature and
hence lower pressure due to
increased rate of entrainment of
wake fluid into the more turbulent
shear layer.
d/b = 0.1
b
d
Low
turbulence
High
turbulence
End of Lecture 8
John Holmes
2254053789 JHolmes@lsu.edu
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics
• Streamlined body •  flow follows contours of body :
• Bluff body •  flow separates :
• vortices formed by rolling up of shear layers  may reattach
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Bernoulli’s equation : p 1 aU 2 a constant 2 applicable in inviscid (zero viscosity) and irrotational (zero vorticity) flow  outside of boundary layers and free shear layers p 1 1 aU 2 p0 aU 02 2 2 p0 and U0 are pressure and velocity in region outside of influence of body .
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Surface pressure coefficient : p p0 Cp 1 aU 02 2 in regions in which Bernoulli’s Equation is valid : 1 2 a U 02 U 2 U Cp 2 1 U 1 2 0 aU 0 2 U=0 Cp = 1.0 (stagnation point) U > U0 Cp < 0 approximately valid in separated flows if U is taken as velocity in flow just outside adjacent shear layer .
often projected width normal to wind . .Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Force coefficient : CF F 1 aU 02 A 2 reference area.arbitary but often projected area Force per unit length coefficient : Cf f 1 aU 02b 2 b = reference length . A.
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Wind axes : • Body axes : = angle of attack .
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Relationship between force coefficients in two axes systems : Fx = D cos .L sin Fy = D sin .L cos .
turbulence length scale ratios Uh/ . Iv. Iw . lv/h.Reynolds Number ( is kinematic viscosity) In wind tunnel testing .Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Dependence of pressure/force coefficients on other nondimensional groups : Cp = f(1.turbulence intensities lu/h. lw/h .try to match ’s in full scale and model scale .Jensen Number (h is height of building) Iu. 2. 3 etc…) Examples of ’s : h/zo .
and very turbulent flow .Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Reynolds Number Re = Uh/ = aUh/ = kinematic viscosity = dynamic viscosity Reynolds Number represents a ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces in the flow fullscale values of Re cannot be matched in wind tunnel tests dependence of flow on Re .less for sharpedged bluff bodies.
steeper mean speed profile.Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Jensen Number Je = h/z0 z0 = roughness length Applicable only to bluff bodies immersed in a turbulent boundary layer (fullscale or windtunnel) Lower values of Je . Lecture 6. higher turbulence Ref. Chapter 3 .
D = (pW .W + (– Cp.pL) A pW = average pressure on windward wall pL = average pressure on leeward wall dividing both sides by (1/2) a U2A : CD = Cp.L) .W – Cp.L = Cp. freestanding walls Drag force.Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Flat plates and walls normal to flow Advertising hoardings.
1 CD = 1.2 Turbulence decreases (more negative) leeward side or ‘base’ pressure by increasing entrainment of flow from wake by ‘shear’ layers .Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Flat plates and walls normal to flow SQUARE PLATE Shear layer Smooth flow Turbulent flow CD = 1.
lower base pressure .Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Flat plates and walls normal to flow TWODIMENSIONAL PLATE Smooth flow CD = 1.strong vortex generation and shedding .9 No flow path around the sides (out of screen) .higher drag .
smaller vortices lower drag .Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • Flat plates and walls normal to flow TWODIMENSIONAL PLATE splitter plate CD = 1.4 Splitter plate induces reattachment of flow .weaker.
2 Ground CD = 1.1 Ground TWODIMENSIONAL WALL SQUARE WALL Walls on ground .Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • walls normal to flow CD = 1.boundary layer flow : U taken as Uh (top of wall) .
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • walls normal to flow Only slight dependency of CD on length / height (b/h) .
2 .5b Combined Cd 0.1 acts like a single plate 1.Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • two square plates in series normal to flow Spacing 0 b Combined Cd 1.5b) Spacing acts like two single plates Combined Cd 2.8 combined drag is less than single plate (critical spacing = 1.
(1)2 = solidity = solid area/total area Kp : not sensitive to shape of openings (plate could be a truss with linear members) . = CD .Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • porous plate CD. Kp Kp = porosity factor. Kp 1.
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • inclined plate Primarily normal force (negligible tangential component) For angle of attack. < 10 degrees. CN 2 h 4 CN 2 ( in radians) reference area : plan area normal to surface Centre of pressure at h/4 from leading edge .
5 As increases. centre of pressure moves towards centre of plate .4h 45o CN = 1.Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • inclined plate 0.
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • rectangular prism (two dimensional) b 3 Smooth flow 105<Re<106 d Cd 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 d/b Maximum Cd at d/b 0.7.drag is lower .7 For d/b > 0. shear layers reattach to sides of prism .
0 Cd 2 1 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 Iu(%) With increasing turbulence intensity.Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • rectangular prism (two dimensional) Effect of turbulence 4 b 3 d 0.62 1.50 0. d/b ratio for maximum Cd falls Turbulence promotes increased curvature of shear layers reattachment occurs at lower d/b ratio (shorter afterbody length) .33 0.
Basic bluffbody aerodynamics • rectangular prism (two dimensional) Effect of turbulence Decreased radius of curvature and hence lower pressure due to increased rate of entrainment of wake fluid into the more turbulent shear layer. Higher drag b Partial reattachment lower drag d Lower drag Low turbulence High turbulence Higher drag d/b = 0.1 d/b 0.5 .
edu .End of Lecture 8 John Holmes 2254053789 JHolmes@lsu.