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# Basic bluff-body aerodynamics I

Lecture 8 Dr. J.D. Holmes
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Streamlined body
• - flow follows contours of body :
• Bluff body
• - flow separates :
• vortices formed by rolling up of shear layers - may re-attach
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Bernoulli’s equation :
applicable in inviscid (zero viscosity) and irrotational (zero vorticity) flow
- outside of boundary layers and free shear layers
constant a
2
1
2
= + U p
a
µ
2
0 0
2
2
1
2
1
U p U p
a a
µ µ + = +
p
0
and U
0
are pressure and velocity in region outside of influence of body
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Surface pressure coefficient :
in regions in which Bernoulli’s Equation is valid :
approximately valid in separated flows if U is taken as velocity in flow just
2
0
0
2
1
U
p p
C
a
p
µ
÷
=
( )
2
0
2
0
2 2
0
1
2
1
2
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷
=
U
U
U
U U
C
a
a
p
µ
µ
U = 0 C
p
= 1.0 (stagnation point)
U > U
0
C
p
< 0
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Force coefficient :
reference area, A, - arbitary but often projected area
b = reference length - often projected width normal to wind
Force per unit length coefficient :
A U
F
C
a
F
2
0
2
1
µ
=
b U
f
C
a
f
2
0
2
1
µ
=
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Wind axes :
o = angle of attack
• Body axes :
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Relationship between force coefficients in two axes systems :
F
x
= D cos o - L sin o
F
y
= D sin o - L cos o
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Dependence of pressure/force coefficients on other non-dimensional
groups :
C
p
= f(t
1
, t
2
, t
3
etc…)
Examples of t’s :
h/z
o
- Jensen Number (h is height of building)
I
u
, I
v
, I
w
- turbulence intensities
l
u
/h, l
v
/h, l
w
/h - turbulence length scale ratios
Uh/u - Reynolds Number (u is kinematic viscosity)
In wind tunnel testing - try to match t’s in full scale and model scale
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Reynolds Number
Re = Uh/u = µ
a
Uh/µ
u = kinematic viscosity µ = dynamic viscosity
Reynolds Number represents a ratio of inertial forces to viscous
forces in the flow
full-scale values of Re cannot be matched in wind tunnel tests
dependence of flow on Re - less for sharp-edged bluff bodies,
and very turbulent flow
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Jensen Number
Je = h/z
0

z
0
= roughness length
Applicable only to bluff bodies immersed in a turbulent boundary
layer (full-scale or wind-tunnel)
Lower values of Je - steeper mean speed profile, higher turbulence
Ref. Lecture 6, Chapter 3
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Flat plates and walls normal to flow
Drag force, D = (p
W
- p
L
) A
p
W
= average pressure on windward wall
p
L
= average pressure on leeward wall
dividing both sides by (1/2) µ
a
U
2
A

:
C
D
= C
p,W
– C
p,L
= C
p,W
+ (– C
p,L
)
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Flat plates and walls normal to flow
Turbulence decreases (more negative) leeward side or ‘base’
pressure by increasing entrainment of flow from wake by
‘shear’ layers
Smooth flow
C
D
= 1.1
SQUARE PLATE
Turbulent flow
C
D
= 1.2
Shear layer
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Flat plates and walls normal to flow
No flow path around the sides (out of screen) - strong vortex generation
and shedding - lower base pressure - higher drag
C
D
= 1.9
Smooth flow
TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLATE
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Flat plates and walls normal to flow
Splitter plate induces re-attachment of flow - weaker, smaller vortices -
lower drag
TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLATE
C
D
= 1.4
splitter plate
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• walls normal to flow
Walls on ground - boundary layer flow : U taken as U
h
(top of wall)
C
D
= 1.2
TWO-DIMENSIONAL WALL
Ground
SQUARE WALL
C
D
= 1.1
Ground
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• walls normal to flow
Only slight dependency of C
D
on length / height (b/h)
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• two square plates in series normal to flow
acts like a single plate
Spacing ÷ 0
b Combined C
d
~ 1.1
1.5b
Combined C
d
~ 0.8
combined drag is less
than single plate
(critical spacing = 1.5b)
Spacing ÷ ·
Combined C
d
~ 2.2
acts like two single plates
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• porous plate
C
D
,
o
= C
D
. K
p

K
p
= porosity factor,

K
p
~ 1- (1-o)
2

K
p :
not sensitive to shape of openings
(plate could be a truss with linear members)
o = solidity = solid area/total area
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• inclined plate
Primarily normal force
(negligible tangential component)
For angle of attack, o < 10 degrees,
Centre of pressure at h/4 from leading edge
C
N
~ 2t o
C
N
~ 2to
o
4
h
reference area : plan area normal to surface
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• inclined plate
As o increases, centre of pressure moves
towards centre of plate
C
N
= 1.5
45
o

0.4h
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• rectangular prism (two dimensional)
Maximum C
d
at d/b ~0.7

3

2

1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
d/b
C
d

Smooth flow
10
5
<Re<10
6
b
d
For d/b > 0.7, shear layers re-attach to sides of prism - drag is lower
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• rectangular prism (two dimensional)
Effect of turbulence
With increasing turbulence intensity, d/b ratio for maximum C
d
falls
4

3

2

1

0

0 4 8 12 16 20
I
u
(%)

C
d
0.33
0.50

0.62

1.0
b
d
Turbulence promotes increased curvature of shear layers -
reattachment occurs at lower d/b ratio (shorter after-body length)
Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• rectangular prism (two dimensional)
Effect of turbulence
Partial
reattachment
lower drag
Higher
drag
d/b ~ 0.5
Higher
drag
Lower
drag
hence lower pressure due to
increased rate of entrainment of
wake fluid into the more turbulent
shear layer.
d/b = 0.1
b
d
Low
turbulence
High
turbulence

End of Lecture 8

John Holmes
225-405-3789 JHolmes@lsu.edu

Basic bluff-body aerodynamics
• Streamlined body • - flow follows contours of body :

• Bluff body • - flow separates :

• vortices formed by rolling up of shear layers - may re-attach

Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Bernoulli’s equation : p 1  aU 2  a constant 2 applicable in inviscid (zero viscosity) and irrotational (zero vorticity) flow - outside of boundary layers and free shear layers p 1 1  aU 2  p0   aU 02 2 2 p0 and U0 are pressure and velocity in region outside of influence of body .

Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Surface pressure coefficient : p  p0 Cp  1  aU 02 2 in regions in which Bernoulli’s Equation is valid : 1 2  a U 02  U 2 U  Cp  2  1   U  1 2  0  aU 0 2   U=0 Cp = 1.0 (stagnation point) U > U0 Cp < 0 approximately valid in separated flows if U is taken as velocity in flow just outside adjacent shear layer .

often projected width normal to wind . .Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Force coefficient : CF  F 1  aU 02 A 2 reference area.arbitary but often projected area Force per unit length coefficient : Cf  f 1  aU 02b 2 b = reference length . A.

Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Wind axes : • Body axes :  = angle of attack .

Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Relationship between force coefficients in two axes systems : Fx = D cos  .L sin  Fy = D sin  .L cos  .

turbulence length scale ratios Uh/ . Iv. Iw . lv/h.Reynolds Number ( is kinematic viscosity) In wind tunnel testing .Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Dependence of pressure/force coefficients on other non-dimensional groups : Cp = f(1.turbulence intensities lu/h. lw/h .try to match ’s in full scale and model scale .Jensen Number (h is height of building) Iu. 2. 3 etc…) Examples of ’s : h/zo .

and very turbulent flow .Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Reynolds Number Re = Uh/ = aUh/  = kinematic viscosity  = dynamic viscosity Reynolds Number represents a ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces in the flow full-scale values of Re cannot be matched in wind tunnel tests dependence of flow on Re .less for sharp-edged bluff bodies.

steeper mean speed profile.Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Jensen Number Je = h/z0 z0 = roughness length Applicable only to bluff bodies immersed in a turbulent boundary layer (full-scale or wind-tunnel) Lower values of Je . Lecture 6. higher turbulence Ref. Chapter 3 .

D = (pW .W + (– Cp.pL) A pW = average pressure on windward wall pL = average pressure on leeward wall dividing both sides by (1/2) a U2A : CD = Cp.L) .W – Cp.L = Cp. free-standing walls Drag force.Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Flat plates and walls normal to flow Advertising hoardings.

1 CD = 1.2 Turbulence decreases (more negative) leeward side or ‘base’ pressure by increasing entrainment of flow from wake by ‘shear’ layers .Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Flat plates and walls normal to flow SQUARE PLATE Shear layer Smooth flow Turbulent flow CD = 1.

lower base pressure .Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Flat plates and walls normal to flow TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLATE Smooth flow CD = 1.strong vortex generation and shedding .9 No flow path around the sides (out of screen) .higher drag .

smaller vortices lower drag .Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • Flat plates and walls normal to flow TWO-DIMENSIONAL PLATE splitter plate CD = 1.4 Splitter plate induces re-attachment of flow .weaker.

2 Ground CD = 1.1 Ground TWO-DIMENSIONAL WALL SQUARE WALL Walls on ground .Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • walls normal to flow CD = 1.boundary layer flow : U taken as Uh (top of wall) .

Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • walls normal to flow Only slight dependency of CD on length / height (b/h) .

2 .5b Combined Cd  0.1 acts like a single plate 1.Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • two square plates in series normal to flow Spacing  0 b Combined Cd  1.5b) Spacing   acts like two single plates Combined Cd  2.8 combined drag is less than single plate (critical spacing = 1.

(1-)2  = solidity = solid area/total area Kp : not sensitive to shape of openings (plate could be a truss with linear members) . = CD .Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • porous plate CD. Kp Kp = porosity factor. Kp  1.

Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • inclined plate Primarily normal force (negligible tangential component) For angle of attack.  < 10 degrees. CN  2 h 4  CN  2  ( in radians) reference area : plan area normal to surface Centre of pressure at h/4 from leading edge .

5 As  increases. centre of pressure moves towards centre of plate .4h 45o CN = 1.Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • inclined plate 0.

Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • rectangular prism (two dimensional) b 3 Smooth flow 105<Re<106 d Cd 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 d/b Maximum Cd at d/b 0.7.drag is lower .7 For d/b > 0. shear layers re-attach to sides of prism .

0 Cd 2 1 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 Iu(%) With increasing turbulence intensity.Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • rectangular prism (two dimensional) Effect of turbulence 4 b 3 d 0.62 1.50 0. d/b ratio for maximum Cd falls Turbulence promotes increased curvature of shear layers reattachment occurs at lower d/b ratio (shorter after-body length) .33 0.

Basic bluff-body aerodynamics • rectangular prism (two dimensional) Effect of turbulence Decreased radius of curvature and hence lower pressure due to increased rate of entrainment of wake fluid into the more turbulent shear layer. Higher drag b Partial reattachment lower drag d Lower drag Low turbulence High turbulence Higher drag d/b = 0.1 d/b  0.5 .

edu .End of Lecture 8 John Holmes 225-405-3789 JHolmes@lsu.