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Presented by
Samar fareed mahmoud Farieda Abo Alfetouh


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Introduction . Definition of communication Significance of communication Communication process Factors influencing communication Channels of communications Barriers of communication Types of communication

Guidelines for effective


At the end of this lecture all partners will be able to:-. List significance of communication. Enumerate the barriers that affected communication. Describe the communication channels. Differentiate between the types of communication. 3/11/12

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• Demonstrates verbal & nonverbal communication effectively. • 3/11/12 . Dealing with difficult people effectively .Objective cont.

. complex exchange of thoughts.Ø Communication is a aprocess of sending and receiving message that forms connection between the sender and receiver. Definitions Ø Ø Communication is the basic element of human interaction that allows people to establish. or information on at least two levels: verbal and nonverbal. and 3/11/12 improve contacts with others. ideas. maintains.

Enable nurses to establish a work relationship with patient to help them to meet their health care needs. to direct our selfs. Without communications we would be unable to learn. lives and to work together cooperatively in families. 3/11/12 Ø Ø . organizations and communities. maintain and improve contact with others.Significance of communications Ø Allow a person to establish.

Ø Establish relationship among the health care team and promotes continuity of care. It satisfies the need of self-expression of the people who work and also those who get the work done from others. 3/11/12 Ø Ø . Effective communication leads to higher productivity and job satisfaction.

The communication Process sending and Communication is the process of receiving information among people… Feedback receiver sender SENDER M e s s a g e RECEIVER 3/11/12 .

Referent It is the stimulus. experience.The Communication Process 1. motives to communicate with others. it may be an object. emotion. or act individuals who consciously consider the referent during interpersonal interaction can carefully develop and organize messages. idea . 3/11/12 .

3/11/12 . Sender (Speaker or encoder ) Sender is a person who initiate the interpersonal communication. The sender puts the referent into a form that can be transmitted and assumes responsibility for the accuracy of content and emotional tone of the message.2.

The most effective message is clear. 3/11/12 . organize and expressed in familiar manner to receiving it. concise.3. Message  The message is the information that is expressed by the sender.

3/11/12 .4. Channels are means of conveying messages. Channels The message is sent through a channel of communication.

the receiver must perceive or become aware of the message.5. Receiver   Is the person to whom the message is sent for communication to be effective. It prompts the receiver to decode and respond to sender’s message. 3/11/12 .

6. 3/11/12 . The receiver returns a message to the sender. It indicates whether the meaning of the sender's message was understood. Feed back   Communication is an ongoing process.

Perceptions. Suitable environment facilitates good communication 3/11/12 Factors influencing communication ii. Audience: it is important to know . the personal view of events values: these are standards that influence behavior Communication is more effective when the participants remain aware of their roles in relationship. iv. iii.i. v.

Cultivate listening:- It is important to listen well as it is to speak.i. Examine the purpose of each communication 3/11/12 . i.

upward communication. horizontal communication.• Downward communication. Channels Of Communication • • • 3/11/12 . grapevine communication.

downward upward grapevine horizontal 3/11/12 .

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– Semantic problems.Barriers interfere with effective communication Ø Common sources of noise in interpersonal communication. – Mixed messages. – Absence of feedback. 3/11/12 . – Cultural differences.

Barriers interfere with effective communication Ø Common sources of noise in interpersonal communication. – Semantic problems. – Mixed messages. – Cultural differences. – Absence of feedback. 3/11/12 .

Types of communication • A-verbal communication Written communication Face-to-face communication Telephone communication • B-N0n Verbal communication 3/11/12 .

Nonverbal communication • Much of our communication occurs through nonverbal channels that much be examined in the context of verbal content. 3/11/12 .

Facial expression. Timing. Posture. Vocal clues such as . inflection. Space. Environment.Non Verbal clues • Gestures. tone Eye contact. Appearance. volume. 3/11/12 • • • • .

( Anglo and African American nurse managers – East Indian or middle eastern 3/11/12 origins ) (andrews.g.Space • The space between the sender and receiver influences what is communicated.1998 . some cultures require greater space between sender and receiver than others. • E.

3/11/12 .Environment • The area where the communication takes place is an important part of the communication process. • Communication takes place in superior's office is more seriously than that which occurs in the cafeteria.

Appearance • ( Andrews. . “ the phrase “ dressing for success “ appropriately define the impact of dress and appearance on role perception and power. • You must cared of your clothing. hair 3/11/12 styles. cosmetics and attractiveness. 1998 ) : said that.

2000 ). • The manager must be aware that. the presence or absence of eye contact is strongly influenced by cultural 3/11/12 .Eye contact • Eye contact invites interaction but breaking eye contact mean that the interaction is about to cease ( Bohannon. like space.

Posture • Posture and the way you control the other parts of your body are extremely important. with head erect. leans toward the receiver. • The weight of a message is increased if the sender faces the receiver stands or sits appropriately close. 3/11/12 . and.

. 1998 ) Nurses from Asian cultures are less tactile. however. • ( Andrews. be distracting. they may perceived Anglo or African American nurses behavior as boisterous or rude by comparison.Gestures • Too much gesturing can. • The use of touch is one gesture that often sends messages that are misinterpreted by 3/11/12 receivers from different cultures.

3/11/12 .Facial expression • Effective communication requires a facial expression that agrees with your message. • Staff perceive managers who present a pleasant and open expression as approachable.

Timing • Hesitation often diminishes the effect of your statement or implies untruthfulness. 3/11/12 .

Vocal clues • ( tone volume. inflation) All of these clues add to the message being transmitted. • Tentative statements sound more like questions than statements. 3/11/12 . leading listeners to think you are unsure of yourself . • Speaking rapidly implies nervousness.

Verbal communication skills • Assertive behavior : is a way of communicating that allows people to express themselves in direct. honest. and appropriate ways that do not 3/11/12 .• One of the most important verbal communication skills is the art of assertive communication.

or 3/11/12 . aggressive. Actually. indirectly aggressive or passive aggressive . at least for possibilities communication exist. passive.Misconceptions about assertive communication The first is that all communication is either assertive or passive.

Cont. • Passive communication : occurs when a person suffers in silence. this behavior is generally . although he or she the issue . may feel strongly about • Aggressive people : express themselves in a direct and often hostile manner that infringes on another 3/11/12 person's rights.

Cont. . • It generally involves limited verbal exchange. The second misconception is that those who communicate or behave assertively get 3/11/12 everything they want. • Passive aggressive communication :is an aggressive message presented in a passive way.

Rights and responsibilities of assertive person Rights • Responsibilities • To speak up To take To listen To give To find solutions • • • • To have problems 3/11/12 • To comfort • .

• ( chenevert.Cont. 1998) To laugh To have friends To criticize To have your efforts rewarded • To make others happy • • • To be a friend To praise To reward others’ efforts • • • • To be independent 3/11/12 .

Repeat the assertive message. • • • • • Question. when under attack by an aggressive one. Point out the implicit assumptions.What an assertive person can do . Reflect. 3/11/12 . Restate the message by using assertive language.

3/11/12 . the active process of listening is vital for interpersonal communication effectiveness. 2003 ) For the leader.Listening skills • Research has shown that people hear or actually retain only a small amount of the information given to them. & morjikian. 1:3 • ( O’Neil.

and biases affect how they receive and perceive messages. 3/11/12 .To become better listeners • First leaders must become aware of how their own experiences. values. • Second leaders must overcome the information and communication overload inherent in the middle management role. attitudes.

• The leader’s primary purpose is to 3/11/12 receive the message being sent rather . Cont.• The managers must stop listening actively to the many subordinates who need and demand their time simultaneously. • Finally the leader must continually work to improve listening skills.

THANK YOU 3/11/12 .