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Hydrocarbons in Everyday Life
Hydrocarbons are the compounds containing carbon and hydrogen.
Today, we live in a world full of hydrocarbons.
INDUST RIES POWER GENERA TION
FUEL FOR AUTOMOBIL ES
Hydrocarbons find their use in all fields, especially in the energy sector.
Extensive use in two industries
• Polymer industry • Nano sensors
With inorganic elements being Cytotoxic, Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are being developed
• These too are made up of hydrocarbons.
Sources of Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons Petroleum Natural Gas Gasoline Diesel Aviation Fuel CNG LPG PNG .
Coal: Source of Energy Most ancient source of energy exploited by man Cheapest and easily accessible form of energy Used in production of electricity and heat Also used for industrial purposes such as refining metals Largest source of energy in India .
There is a massive decrease in the availability of quality coal. Consequently petroleum emerged as a strong candidate to fulfill the energy demands.Emergence of Petroleum in the Energy Sector Coal emits twice as much of carbon dioxide than any other fossil fuel Coal mines are dangerous and the risk of fatalities is high. .
Petroleum: Production and Consumption rising oil consumption and relatively The combination of flat production left India increasingly dependent on imports to meet its petroleum demand. . In 2010. India was the world‟s fifth largest net importer of oil.
Changing Landscape: The matter of concern Besides being a crucial source of energy it has been responsible for the degradation of the environment. .
Effect on Water Bodies The aquatic flora and fauna are vindicated by the oil spills that largely contain petroleum products ( Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) .
Oil Pollution Submarine hydrocarbon seeps continually release oil into the marine environment (approx.000 tonnes a year) Major causes of oil pollution are Increased use of oil as fuel source and industrial raw material Increased extraction from marine areas Increased transport of oil by a marine route . 250.
000 gallons) 1979 .000 gallons .000.Gulf War: 9.000 barrels (378.000.000.The largest “oil spill” 1991 . Mexico: 140.Bay of Campeche. Ciudad del Carmen.
Cleanup Human intervention Booms. . Skimmers (remove floating oil) Sorbents (absorb oil) Straw/peat/synthetic Dispersing agents. Gelling agents Biological agents Mechanical washing Trenches Dredging All these substances of any attempt of human intervention to cleanup the oil spill further adds to pollution.
Effect of soil tillage as a form of bioremediation on the reduction of TPH and PAHs concentrations. carbon.Effect on Soil Changes in concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil due to its contamination by crude oil and drilling fluids. Primary effect is: Changes in soil pH. Effects of different concentration of crude oil and drilling fluids on emergence. nitrogen and sulphur at different concentrations of crude oil and drilling fluids in soil. Organic matter (soil organic matter). . plant density and crops yield.
PAHs belong to the group of persistent organic pollutant. These are organic contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods . They are produced in all processes of incomplete combustion of natural resources.Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAHs are composed of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms arranged in the form of fused benzene rings(linear. crystallized and angular arrangements).
cooking gas.) Incineration of Municipal and Industrial wastes. sea-traffic. .Sources of PAHs Power and heat generation(pe at power plants. sintering) stoves. trains) Industries (mainly coke and carbon production. petroleum processing and Residential heating aluminium (furnaces. etc. wood. coal. aeroplanes. oil) Mobile sources (cars.
.Introduction of New Technology “Green” Technology Mercedes-Benz‟ F 800 Style research vehicle is showing the future of premium automobiles from a new perspective. Smaller engines are able to deliver more power with higher mileage and lower emissions.
Alternate To Petroleum: Natural Gas .
Now a days used as fuel for automobiles for .Natural Gas Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG): Flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases. Increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and refrigerant and widely used for domestic purpose Compressed Natural Gas (CNG): Fossil fuel made by compressing natural gas usually methane at STP.
Exploration And Production Until 2008. Moreover many new pipelines have been set up like the Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline and Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India Pipeline to provide adequate gas supply. . Recent discoveries in the Bay of Bengal have shifted the gravity of natural gas production in the country. the majority of India‟s natural gas production came from the Mumbai High.
the worlds proven supply of natural gas will last 65 years. higher than oil's 41 years. . Natural gas is also more abundant: at constant levels of production.Why Natural Gas ? Natural gas is much cleaner . and about 45% less carbon dioxide than coal.per unit of energy its combustion produces 30% less carbon dioxide than oil.
Available Alternate Sources .
or by reacting it with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key of a proposed hydrogen economy. Low energy content per unit volume High investments in infrastructure.Beyond Hydrocarbons The power plants of these vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine. Limitations Hydrogen is explosive in nature. .
Supplement with Renewable Energy . wind. Limitations: High installation cost and area with very low output.5-3 MV. rain. Wind Energy: Airflows can be used to run wind turbines which produce power energy ranging from 1. due to limited availability of high speed winds consistently. tides and geothermal heat which are naturally replenished.Renewable energy: Energy comes from natural resources such as sunlight.
. Limitations: Huge investments with low output.Supplement with Renewable Energy Hydro Power: Energy in water can be harnessed and used to rotate turbines which produce large amount of energy. Limitations: Setting up of dams destroys the habitation & settlements. Solar Energy: Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation.
Bio Fuels: Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. When the plants are burnt. they release the sun‟s energy they contain. Biomass covers solid biomass. .Supplement with Renewable Energy Biomass: Biomass (plant material) is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains comes from the sun. plants capture the sun‟s energy. through the process of photosynthesis. liquid fuels and various biogases.
Natural gas now defines . This leads to several opportunities for renewable energy.Natural Gas: Bridge to a Renewable Future Renewable sources of energy require huge investments in infrastructure. but the output is not high. The availability and cost of natural gas varies by location. Renewable energy sources require sustained and rapid growth: therefore dependence on expanding markets.
CNG is stored in thick-walled steel. . gas is compressed and stored on the vehicle in pressurized tanks. aluminium. or composite tanks built to last more than 20 years. In smaller fuelling locations and on vehicles.New Technology Compressed Natural Gas In order to provide enough range.
Future Perspectives .
used to produce biodiesels can be used for fuel directly. bio ethanol. .e not suitable for agriculture. bio gasoline using land i.Alternative Fuels Algae Fuel Alternative to fossil fuel and uses algae as its source of nature deposits. SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil): Algal oils i. harvested algae take out CO2 from the atmosphere. High oil prices and gap between demand & supply ignited interest in algaculture for making vegetable oil.e. biodiesel. Unlike fossil fuels which release CO2 on burning.
Brazil and USA signed an expanded . or biomass. natural gas. It may also refer to fuels derived from other solids such as plastics or rubber waste.Alternative Fuels Hydro cracking to traditional transport fuel Vegetable oil can be used for an oil refinery where methods like hydro cracking or hydrogenation can be used to transform the vegetable oil into standard fuels like gasoline and diesel. Synthetic fuel: Synthetic fuel or synfuel is a liquid fuel obtained from coal. oil shale. Jet fuel from Sugarcane: In March 2011.
Amine based novel solvent to be used in absorption process for CO2.CO2 Capture and Utilization Petroleum refining is an energy intensive process but also contributes to green house gases emissions. . Metal frame works (MOF) which have high adsorption CO2 capacities. CO2 removal form biogas to improve its calorific value using the zeolite based adsorbents. Zeolite type adsorbent has been developed for CO2 recovery.
the demand for fuel oil is diminishing with many industries switching to gas in place of fuel oil. Unstable crude prices. reducing fuel oil uptake. Significant price differential between light and heavy crudes Shifting price demands. Old and obsolete technologies that are eventually inefficient and gives very low output.Facing Challenges Increasing product quality requirement and stricter emission regulations. . The volatility in crude oil and product prices is compounded with decreasing availability of lighter and sweet crude oils. while the demand for distillate product continues to grow.
paper. fertilizers. Energy sector in India is one of the most challenging sector for global players. Energy industry considered as the primary driver of Indian economy as it is the major fuel for various industries like power sector. .Energy Sector in India India is the sixth largest energy consumer and offers immense potential for foreign investors. steel. transport and thousands of small and medium enterprises in India. chemical. cement.
The Energy Sector Scenario .
. railways. Create an enabling Infrastructure for energy sector growth by investment in ports. Tie ups and alliances are inevitably required to set up international pipeline for crude oil and LNG import.Filling the Gap Crucial measures undertaken to bridge the expected Demand-Supply Gap: Implementation of exploration measures to convert the proven reserves into established resource fetching reserves. Government policies to increase the industry attractiveness for foreign investors. pipelines and power transmission. Technological enhancement in existing production and exploration capacities to better productivity and to extract more resources from proven reserves.
more efficient for „our‟ coming generations. .Conclusion For the healthy existence of life on earth we will have to go for sustainable development and thus judicious use of the exhaustible energy resources. and development of alternate sources of energy which are less polluting.
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