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ASWIN SANKAR J S ROLL NO:12
Regenerative Braking System is the way of slowing vehicle by using motors as brakes
Instead of the surplus energy of the vehicle being wasted as unwanted heat, the motors act as generators and return some of it to the overhead wires as electricity.
This energy is stored in a large battery, and used by an electric motor that provides motive force to the wheels.
The regenerative braking taking place on the vehicle is a way to obtain more efficiency; instead of converting kinetic energy to thermal energy
through frictional braking, the vehicle can convert a good fraction of its
kinetic energy back into charge in the battery, using the same principle as an alternator.
In vehicles brakes are used to absorb kinetic energy whereas in hoists or elevators brakes are also used to absorb potential energy. normally brake converts kinetic energy to heat energy. By connecting the moving member to stationary frame.Brake: A brake is a machine element and its principle object is to absorb energy during deceleration. This causes wastage of energy and also wearing of frictional lining material. .
thus slowing the car's wheels. . While running backwards.Regenerative Braking System:In a traditional braking system. Additional friction is produced between the slowed wheels and the surface of the road. producing electricity that's then fed into the vehicle's batteries. on the other hand. This friction is what turns the car's kinetic energy into heat. When the driver steps on the brake pedal of an electric or hybrid vehicle. With regenerative brakes. causing it to run backwards. brake pads produce friction with the brake rotors to slow or stop the vehicle. these types of brakes put the vehicle's electric motor into reverse mode. the motor also acts as an electric generator. the system that drives the vehicle does the majority of the braking.
. The Motor operates as a generator.Definition: Braking method in which the mechanical energy from the load is converted into electric energy and regenerated back into the line is known as Regenerative Braking.
This vastly improves fuel economy of the vehicle. stop-and-go traffic where little deceleration is required. the regenerative braking system can provide the majority of the total braking force. and further enhances the attractiveness of vehicles using regenerative braking for city driving. .NECESSITY OF THE SYSTEM In low-speed. regenerative braking has been shown to contribute to improved fuel economy – by as much as 20%. too. At higher speeds.
with the remaining 80 percent of its energy being converted to heat through friction. This could reduce fuel consumption by 10 to 25 percent.Advantages of Regenerative braking over Conventional braking:- Energy Conservation The energy efficiency of a conventional car is only about 20 percent. The miraculous thing about regenerative braking is that it may be able to capture as much as half of that wasted energy and put it back to work. .
Wear Reduction: An electric drive train also allows for regenerative breaking which increases efficiency and reduces wear on the vehicle brakes. Since both are used together the wear of friction brakes is lesser. Traditional friction based braking is used in conjunction with mechanical regenerative braking. The regenerative braking effect drops off at lower speeds. therefore the friction brake is still required in order to bring the vehicle to a complete halt. .
therefore. With regenerative brakes. braking is a total loss: once heat is generated. .Braking is not total loss Conventional brakes apply friction to convert a vehicle’s kinetic energy into heat. the system that drives the vehicle does the majority of the braking. In energy terms. on the other hand. it is very difficult to reuse.
The Integrated Motor Assist(IMA) operating principle Integrated Motor Assist (commonly abbreviated as IMA) is Honda's hybrid car technology. This smaller engine is the primary reason cars equipped with IMA get better highway mileage than their more conventional counterparts. The theory behind IMA is to use regenerative braking to recapture some of the energy lost through deceleration. . and it reduces the work required of the petrol engine. This has two effects: it increases the rate of acceleration. and reuse that energy later on to help accelerate the vehicle. The acceleration boost is important as it allows the engine to be scaled down to a smaller but more fuelefficient variant without rendering the vehicle overly slow or weak.
using only its engine like a traditional vehicle. They also have a conventional starter as a backup. since the IMA also acts as the vehicle's alternator. eventually the 12 volt accessory battery would require an external charge. . making it the only production hybrid system which can operate with its high voltage electric system disabled. However. Additionally. vehicles equipped with IMA can shut off their engine when the vehicle stops and use the electric motor to rapidly spin it back up when the driver releases the brake pedal.
The Honda Civic Hybrid runs on two power source which is the petrol engine and the electric motor. better fuel efficiency and lower emissions without compromising the power. . The combination of IMA and 3 stage i-Vtec will gives the car higher engine output . Other than the Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) the Civic Hybrid features a 3 stage i-vtec system which will give plenty of power throughout the rpm range.
a flywheel or in a regenerative fuel cell. .ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM Energy Storage Unit (ESU): The ESU performs two primary functions To recover & store braking energy To absorb excess engine energy during light load operation The selection criteria for an effective energy storage includes:- High specific energy storage density High energy transfer rate Small space requirement The energy recaptured by regenerative braking might be stored in one of three devices: An electrochemical battery.
Batteries: With this system. which slows the vehicle down faster. traditional friction brakes must also be used to ensure that the car slows down as much as necessary. the battery receives a higher charge. The further the brake pedal is depressed. The kinetic energy of the car is used to generate electricity that is then used to recharge the batteries. . the more the conventional friction brakes are employed. the electric motor of a car becomes a generator when the brake pedal is applied. With this system. When the brake pedal is depressed.
The benefit of using flywheel technology is that more of the forward inertial energy of the car can be captured than in batteries. energy is recovered from the drive train during braking and stored in a flywheel. This stored energy is then used during acceleration by altering the ratio of the CVT. In the case of batteries. Using a continuously variable transmission (CVT). they are not able to accept charge at these rapid intervals. the translational energy of the vehicle is transferred into rotational energy in the flywheel.Flywheels: In this system. which stores the energy until it is needed to accelerate the vehicle. . because the flywheel can be engaged even during relatively short intervals of braking and acceleration. and thus more energy is lost to friction.
It can use separate power inputs to produce one output.Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT): The energy storage unit requires a transmission that can handle torque and speed demands in a stepless manner and smoothly control energy flow to and from the vehicle wheels. .
ends. so the regenerative braking controller is similar to an ABS controller. and how quickly the brakes need to be applied. deciding when braking begins.Regenerative Braking Controllers Brake controllers are electronic devices that can control brakes remotely. which monitors the rotational speed of the wheels and the difference in that speed from one wheel to another. . Regenerative braking is implemented in conjunction with anti-lock braking systems (ABS).
averting possible catastrophe. but also ensures that the inflow of electricity isn't more than the batteries can handle. however. The most important function of the brake controller. the brake controller turns the job over to the friction brakes. may be deciding whether the motor is currently capable of handling the force necessary for stopping the car. the brake controller not only monitors the speed of the wheels. In vehicles that use these kinds of brakes.is available to generate electricity to be fed back into the batteries. . If it isn't. During the braking operation. It makes sure that an optimal amount of power is received by the batteries.rotational force -. but it can calculate how much torque -. the brake controller directs the electricity produced by the motor into the batteries or capacitors.
There are two deceleration modes: Foot off throttle but not on brake pedal – in this mode.In this mode. such as coasting.” the motor becomes a generator and sends energy back to the batteries. a higher amount of regeneration will be allowed.OPERATION How regenerative braking system works? Regenerative (or Dynamic Braking) occurs when the vehicle is in motion. and the vehicle will slow down gradually. traveling downhill or braking and the accelerator pedal is not being depressed. and the vehicle will slow more rapidly . During “Regent. Foot on brake pedal . the charge/assist gauge will show partial charge.
therefore the friction brake is still required in order to bring the vehicle to a complete halt. Physical locking of the rotor is also required to prevent vehicles from rolling down hills. The friction brake is a necessary back-up in the event of failure of the regenerative brake. .Why Regenerative Brakes are assisted with the Frictional Brake?? Traditional friction-based braking is used in conjunction with mechanical regenerative braking for the following reasons: The regenerative braking effect drops off at lower speeds.
so in order to provide controlled braking under difficult conditions (such as in wet roads) friction based braking is necessary on the other wheels. For this reason. . it is normal to also incorporate dynamic braking to absorb the excess energy. The amount of electrical energy capable of dissipation is limited by either the capacity of the supply system to absorb this energy or on the state of charge of the battery or capacitors. No regenerative braking effect can occur if another electrical component on the same supply system is not currently drawing power and if the battery or capacitors are already charged. Most road vehicles with regenerative braking only have power on some wheels (as in a two-wheel drive car) and regenerative braking power only applies to such wheels.
Some of the cars using Regenerative Braking:- Toyota Prius .
Honda Civic Hybrid .
Tesla Roadster .
Nissan Leaf .
yet very important. The exhaust emission of vehicle using the regenerative braking concept would be much less than equivalent conventional vehicles as less fuel are used for consumption. step toward our eventual independence from fossil fuels. Theoretical investigations of a regenerative braking system show about 25% saving in fuel consumption. . The traditional cost of the system could be recovered in a few years time. and in which fears about carbon emissions are coming to a peak. this added efficiency is becoming increasingly important Regenerative braking is a small.CONCLUSION In a century that may see the end of the vast fossil fuel reserves that have provided us with energy for automotive and other technologies for many years. The lower operating and environment costs of a vehicle with regenerative braking system should make it more attractive than a conventional one.
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