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10-13 January 2012 MR. ANECITO ZITO G. GALDO MS. SANDRA B. BARRERA MS. HOPE A. SANICO MS. JACLYN I. SOBREPENA
aware of the importance of methods of assessment in relation to student learning outcomes and program improvement
knowledgeable about direct and indirect assessment methods
competent at developing methods for assessing student learning outcomes
knowledgeable about using and adapting assessment methods that are currently in practice
adept at reviewing methods for assessing effectiveness and efficiency
TRAINING GOALS (CONTINUED)
more oriented and adept with portfolios and guiding students in the preparation thereat more prepared to measure the student’s learning through an alternative means, thereby showing clearer progress on the student’s development more competent in giving value to a student’s growth in school more acquainted with the student portfolio evaluation procedures
Review on the Methods for Assessing Student Learning Outcomes Student Learning Outcomes
Describe specific behaviors that a student of your program should demonstrate after completing the program
Focus on the intended abilities, knowledge, values, and attitudes of the student after completion of the program
THINKING CRITICALLY AND MAKING JUDGMENTS
(DEVELOPING ARGUMENTS, REFLECTING, EVALUATING, ASSESSING, JUDGING)
oEssay oReport oJournal oBook review (or article) for a particular reading material oWrite a newspaper article for a foreign newspaper oComment on an article's theoretical perspective
SOLVING PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPING PLANS
(IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS, POSING PROBLEMS, DEFINING PROBLEMS, ANALYZING DATA, REVIEWING, DESIGNING EXPERIMENTS, PLANNING, APPLYING INFORMATION)
oProblem scenario oGroup Work oWork-based problem oAnalyse a case
PERFORMING PROCEDURES AND DEMONSTRATING TECHNIQUES
(COMPUTATION, TAKING READINGS, USING EQUIPMENT, FOLLOWING LABORATORY PROCEDURES, FOLLOWING PROTOCOLS, CARRYING OUT INSTRUCTIONS)
oDemonstration oRole Play oMake a video (write script and produce/make a video) oProduce a poster oLab report oPrepare an illustrated manual on using the equipment, for a particular audience
MANAGING AND DEVELOPING ONESELF
(WORKING CO-OPERATIVELY, WORKING INDEPENDENTLY, LEARNING INDEPENDENTLY, BEING SELF-DIRECTED, MANAGING TIME, MANAGING TASKS, ORGANISING)
oJournal oPortfolio oLearning Contract oGroup work
DEMONSTRATING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
(RECALLING, DESCRIBING, REPORTING, RECOUNTING, RECOGNISING, IDENTIFYING, RELATING & INTERRELATING)
oWritten examination oOral examination oEssay oReport oShort answer questions: True/False/ Multiple Choice Questions (paper-based or computeraided-assessment)
DESIGNING, CREATING, PERFORMING
(IMAGINING, VISUALISING, DESIGNING, PRODUCING, CREATING, INNOVATING, PERFORMING)
o o o o o
Portfolio Performance Presentation Hypothetical Projects
(ONE AND TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION; COMMUNICATION WITHIN A GROUP, VERBAL, WRITTEN AND NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION. ARGUING, DESCRIBING, ADVOCATING, INTERVIEWING, NEGOTIATING, PRESENTING; USING SPECIFIC WRITTEN FORMS)
oWritten presentation (essay, report, reflective paper, etc.) oOral presentation oGroup work oDiscussion/debate/role play oPresentation to camera oObservation of real or simulated practice
Examples of Direct Methods
Samples of individual student work Pre-test and post-test evaluations Standardized tests Performance on licensure exams Blind scored essay tests Internal or external juried review of student work Case study/problems Capstone papers, projects or presentations Project or course imbedded assessment Documented observation and analysis of student behavior/performance Externally reviewed internship or practicum Collections of work (portfolios) of individual students Activity logs Performances Interviews (including videotaped)
Examples of Indirect Methods
Graduating Alumni Employers
and curriculum analysis Transcript analysis
A systematic collection of student work and related material that depicts a student’s activities, accomplishments, and achievements in one or more school subjects.
Portfolio assessment is an ongoing process.
TYPES OF PORTFOLIOS
Process Portfolio may include: journals, reflections, independent work, teacher evaluations, selfevaluations Product Portfolio: short, more accessible documents at mastery level Celebration Portfolio: Student’s use as mementos of their favorite learning activities and experiences; creative and imaginative
TYPES OF PORTFOLIOS (CONT.)
Showcase Portfolio: Displays student’s best work; takes time “Big Books” Portfolio Project: Process elements were sloppy, neat, and final copies of a story Digital Portfolio: May include text, graphics, video, and audio components; student’s gain computer skills
WHY WE USE PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT
Promotes self-evaluation of student Measurement based on genuine samples Student and teacher have shared responsibilities Student’s have extensive input in the process Cooperative learning
WHY WE USE PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT (CONT.) Disadvantages: Requires extra time to plan and conduct Problems with storage Subjective evaluation Holding portfolio conferences is difficult
POSSIBLE VALUES OF USING PORTFOLIOS
Views of student growth Invites self-evaluation Encourages student and teacher creativity Can show progress towards long-range goals Encourages the use of integrated activities with emphasis on depth of learning Can link learning to the world of work Represent actual learning experiences and provide evidence of performance beyond acquisition of factual knowledge
POSSIBLE VALUES OF USING PORTFOLIOS
Provide opportunities for improved student self-image Increase students’ responsibility for their own learning and intrinsic motivation Incorporate examples of student’s higher-level thinking and problem solving Can be used by teachers to monitor class progress, provide feedback to students and parents Encourage a collaborative effort between teachers and students Help to increase awareness of the abilities of special populations
POSSIBLE LIMITATIONS OF USING PORTFOLIOS
Requires administrators and teachers who believe in their value and are well trained in their implementation Must evolve over a prolonged period of time Volume may be mistaken for quality Not comparable Worthwhile activities may be time-consuming to develop and administer Difficult to use for assessing very specific objectives Assigning a single quantitative score can negate the richness of the portfolio
POSSIBLE STUDENT SAMPLES
USING PORTFOLIOS WITH STUDENTS WHO HAVE LEARNING PROBLEMS
Flexibility gives students opportunities to demonstrate achievement Alternative to traditional tests and assignments Individualized learning activities Enhanced motivation Promote mastery learning Good for students with reading and writing deficits
PORTFOLIO ASSESSMENT PROCESS
Three major steps: 1. Select portfolio contents, both student and teacher selected items 2. Portfolio holders should be durable, creative, low cost, functional, neat, and stylish 3. Typical portfolio contents: Table 18-3, pg566
Portfolio Evaluation Procedures
When teachers grade portfolios, they must support their evaluation with evidence that goes beyond their subjective impressions. The contents of the portfolio itself are the primary document that provides this evidence. Portfolio contents should include a series if materials that teachers can use to evaluate what students have learned and how well they learned it.
Well-designed portfolios provide more evidence of achievement, and best demonstrate student’s progress over time. Portfolios include a variety of measurements, but they mostly incorporate the following essential measures: 1. A tracking and evaluation system 2. Criteria for evaluating the entire portfolio and its contents 3. Evidence of students self-assessment 4. Evidence of portfolio conferences
Seven Portfolio Evaluation Procedures
1. Developing a Management System
2. Scoring Portfolio
3. Rubrics 4. Reliability Considerations
5. Holistic/Analytical Scoring Protocols
6. Internal/External Scoring 7. Student Self-Assessment
Developing a Management System
Because portfolios vary in different ways, developing a management system helps portfolios be successful.
Examples: 1. Reading items in a language portfolio could be placed in one section, while written expression materials appears in another section. 2. Portfolios can reflect thematic units, or specific curriculum goals. 3. They can appear in chronological order to show progress
However the portfolio is arranged, teachers must develop a managing system that enables them to keep track of the elements in the portfolio. For example, checklist can be a great way to help teachers keep track of the elements
Depends on the type of portfolio, and the reason for the assessment.
Teachers set requirements for the number of items, and the specific materials that go into the portfolio.
This standardization helps to develop a reliable scoring system that produces consistent results across students.
However, teachers/students can compromise on the items that should be submitted into the portfolio. This increases the value of the portfolios as individual learning tools. As well as, the teacher gets a “standard” to grade, and students have autonomy.
Set of scoring criteria that describe an array of possible responses It also provides specific qualities, or characteristics that occur as different levels of performance
Most portfolio assessments rely on rubrics, such as: Checklist Rating scales Observation systems
The most successful rubrics provide samples of student responses that illustrate student performance at below average, average, and above average levels. Rubrics can provide consistent and effective assessment data with trained scorers. *Popular statewide assessment systems are based on
Scoring must be subjective Teachers must developed rubrics that identify criteria and serve as standards, then judge each portfolio in reference to these criteria and standards. Use professional judgment when rating student performance. Set standards that relate to student’s “learning goals”. Teachers need to be well trained. Develop an evaluation scale that list progression of performance standards with representative examples of work at each level of performance
Holistic and Analytical Protocols
Most teachers ensure accurate assessment by developing one scoring protocol for evaluating all student portfolios.
1.Holistic scoring- involves evaluating the portfolio in its entirety and giving a single overall score. (Mostly used to evaluate larger groups of portfolios) 2.Analytical scoring- involves evaluating each piece separately and combining the individual scores to obtain an overall score. (Tend to be better in small-group situations) There are several factors to determine what scoring would be best: 1. Purpose of the portfolio 2. The intended use of the final product 3. The setting in which the students are developing their portfolios
Internal and External Scoring
Internal scoring- relies on scorers who have direct contract with the portfolio authors; this includes teachers who score the portfolios of their own students.
External scoring- relies on scorers who have had no contact with the portfolio authors. 1. To ensure reliability, external scoring is the best way to
achieve successful scoring. 2. However, it is more time consuming and increases cost.
Student self-assessment- and element that distinguishes portfolio assessment from traditional evaluation, is not one specific procedure; it includes various types of reflections and self-evaluations.
It involves: 1. Students reviewing their entire portfolio
2. Reflect on a series of revisions
3. Compare two work samples to show growth in a specific topic
4. Self-evaluate a single work sample
Consist of meetings in which students review learning goals and discuss progress is a key element in the portfolio assessment process. Most conferences are between students and their teachers They give students opportunities to consider their interests and to access their abilities, such as:
•Reflective discussion •Enable students to participate actively in the assessment process
Scheduling Conference Time
Most difficult challenge in portfolio achievement On average portfolio conferences take about 15 minutes, and teachers should hold four portfolio conferences with each student in a typical academic year. To save time, teachers can incorporate studentcentered learning activities as part of their daily routine. Or, ask for assistance (if available) through teacheraide, or parent volunteer.
Peer, Small-Group and Student-Led Conferences
Peer Conferences- meetings between two students to discuss portfolio goals, activities, and progress. 1. Good for:
• • Instructional situations For older students
2. Works best: •At the end of the school year after students have completed individual conferences with their teachers.
Small-Group Conferences- meetings with three to five students. 1. Good for:
•Reading and writing groups, or other appropriate group •Students to discuss their portfolios with peers because they can received great feedback
2. Works best for:
•Teachers when they find it hard to hold individual conferences
Student-Lead Conferences- allow students to share their progress with their parents in structured conferences. 1. Good for:
•Communicating with parents about the learning activities of their children •Student’s role in explaining their portfolio to their parents •Students to evaluate and reflect upon their learning •Improving communication skills with parents and increase student self-reliance
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