Organelle Genomes

Organelle containing DNA ‡ Mitochondria ‡ Chloroplast

enabling them to produce the proteins and other molecules that are necessary for maintaining the organelle and creating ATP. In order to produce ATP ‡ The mitochondrion needs to be able to produce proteins on its own. and through a long and complicated process. and DNA. ‡ Mitochondria have their own ribosomes. a process for which DNA is necessary. ‡ They take in glucose. produce large amounts of ATP. tRNA. . a molecule which is critical to all reactions in the cell.Introduction ‡ Mitochondria are the organelles which are the "powerhouse" of the cell.


Genome Structure ‡ The mitochondrial genome is a circle. ‡ Both strands encode genes. In one case. ‡ The D loop is also the site where most of replication and transcription is controlled. is a DNA triple helix: there are 2 overlapping copies of the H strand there. although more are on the H strand. with almost no non-coding DNA outside of the D loop. Human mitochondrial genes contain no introns. leading to one strand being ³heavy´ (the H strand) and the other light (the L strand). ‡ Genes are tightly packed. ‡ A short region (1121 bp). the D loop (D = ³displacement´). for instance). although introns are found in the mitochondria of other groups (plants. ‡ The two strands are notably different in base composition. .6 kb of DNA. two genes overlap: they share 43 bp. using different reading frames. A typical bacterial genome is 2-4 Mbp. 16.

Genome Structure .

. ‡ rRNA: 16S and 23S which are standard sizes for bacterial rRNAs.Mitochondrial Genes ‡ Genes: total of 37. Other components are encoded in the nucleus and transported to the mitochondria after translation.8S rRNAs. 2 rRNAs. 13 polypeptides. 22 tRNAs. ‡ polypeptides: all are components of the electron transport chain. Bacterial ribosomes don¶t use 5S or 5.

± Replication can be said to be bidirectional. . it is ³uncovered´ when the old H strand is displaced by the DNA polymerase synthesizing the new H strand. ± The L strand origin folds into a stem-loop structure.Replication and Transcription ‡ Replication starts with the H strand. ± After the new H strand is about 2/3 complete. unlike replication of nuclear DNA. and replication of the L strand begins. which proceeds in both directions simultaneously. The L strand origin is on the old H strand. ± The origin of replication for the H strand is in the D loop. the L strand origin of replication is uncovered. and it is initiated by an RNA primer generated from the L strand transcript. which acts as a primer.

± Both strands are transcribed. and the entire strand is transcribed. ± Protein-coding genes are given poly-A tails. . ± The D loop contains one promoter for each strand. and rRNA and tRNA molecules are modified as necessary. ± The RNA is then cut into individual RNAs for each gene.‡ Transcription.

Chloroplasts capture light energy to conserve free energy in the form of ATP and reduce NADP to NADPH through a complex set of processes called photosynthesis 1. thylakoid membrane system 4.Chloroplast Chloroplast are organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis. intrathylakoid space or lumen . stroma: large soluble interior 3. double-membrane envelope 2.

multiple copies (~30-100) per plastid (can be 10-20% of the total DNA in leaves . no histones.Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) General features: 1. G-C content typically less than nuclear DNA 4. circular molecule 2. but have bound proteins organized into nucleoids 3. double-stranded.

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