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WCDMA RNP CW Test and Propagation Model Tuning
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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd.

HUAWEI Confidential

Page 1

Introduction

CW test (Continuous Wave test) is an important step of Propagation Model Tuning. According to the CW test data (including latitude/longitude and received level) and corresponding Digital maps, we can get the accurate Propagation Model through tuning.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd.

HUAWEI Confidential

Page 2

CONTENT
Chapter 1 Principle of Radio Propagation

and CW Test
Chapter 2 CW Test Flow Chapter 3 Analysis of CW Test Data Chapter 4 Propagation Model Tuning

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd.

HUAWEI Confidential

Page 3

. HUAWEI Confidential Page 4 .Principle of Radio Propagation and CW Test  Section 1 Basic Principle of Radio Propagation  Section 2 Principle of Propagation Model Tuning  Section 3 Purpose of CW Test  Section 4 Basic Principle of CW Test HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd.

HUAWEI Confidential Page 5 ..Radio Waveband Classification Frequency 3-30Hz 30-300Hz 300-3000Hz 3-30KHz 30-300KHz 300-3000KHz 3-30MHz 30-300MHz 300-3000MHz 3-30GHz 30-300GHz 300-3000GHz Frequencies in different bands have different propagation characteristics. Ltd. Classification Extremely Low Frequency Voice Frequency Very-low Frequency Low Frequency Medium Frequency High Frequency Very High Frequency Ultra High Frequency Super High Frequency Extremely High Frequency Designation ELF VF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

Light is electromagnetic wave of a certain wavelength. Oscillator Magnetic field Electric field Magnetic field Electric field Transmission direction of electric wave Electric field HUAWEI Confidential Page 6 . The speed of electromagnetic wave only varies with electric and magnetic characteristics of medium. Continuous electromagnetic oscillation (electromagnetic wave) forms due to mutual excitation of alternating electric and magnetic field. The propagation speed of electric microwave in vacuum equals that of light in vacuum. Light and electromagnetic wave are essentially the same.. Ltd.  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.Generation of Electromagnetic Wave Based on Maxwell equations set:    The variable magnetic field can excite eddy electric field and variable electric field can also excite eddy magnetic field.

Propagation Path Perpendicular incidence wave and ground reflection wave (most common propagation modes) Troposphere reflection wave (the propagation is very random) Mountain diffraction wave (shadow area signal source) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd. Ionosphere refraction wave (beyond-the-horizon communication path) HUAWEI Confidential Page 7 ..

Propagation of Electromagnetic Wave
Ripple in the pond: Energy is propagated around from the source point and gradually weakens. Electromagnetic wave is similarly propagated except that (when the radiation source is isotropically effective ideal point source):

 It is propagated in the form of spherical wave in three-dimension space.
 The propagation media are different, including air, obstacle and reflector.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd.

HUAWEI Confidential

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Characteristics of Radio Propagation

Electric wave propagation system of Land Mobile Communications

LOS and NLOS

Radio propagation in actual environment

①Reflected wave of building ②Diffracted wave ③Direct wave ④Reflected wave on the ground HUAWEI Confidential
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HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd.

Characteristics of Radio Channels
Pr (dBm)
 Radio channels vary with user’s position and time. Multipath scattering and obstruction result in acute changes to received power. Fast fading Slow fading

-20
-40

Slow fading -60 • Attenuation: Pr is in direct proportion to 1/dn. • Shadow: obstructed by barriers Fast fading • Multipath effect  Fast changes to signal strength at small distance and time interval  Doppler frequency shift  Delay spread
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co., Ltd.

10

20

30

d (m)

HUAWEI Confidential

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such as RAKE reception technology. Regarded as time diversity HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. interleaving and error code correction. WCDMA-spread spectrum -Implicit diversity • • Implicit diversity uses signal processing technologies to hide diversity functions into signals under transmission. Ltd..Diversity Technology Measures against fast fading.diversity technologies -Explicit diversity • • • Space diversity Polarization diversity Frequency diversity:GSM-frequency hopping. HUAWEI Confidential Page 11 .

Urban = 3 Solutions Equalization and RAKE technology  HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Suburban = 0.26µs.5. HUAWEI Confidential Page 12 .Delay Spread   Multipath propagation: Signals on different paths reach the receiver at different time. Ltd. 78m) can be recognized. When the receiver fails to distinguish multipath signals. In the WCDMA system. Typical value (µs): Open < 0. only the multipath delay larger than one chip period (0..2. co-channel interference (CCI) occurs.

Doppler Frequency Shift  Example of Doppler effect: A train is passing by you. HUAWEI Confidential Page 13 . Ltd..  Doppler frequency shift in Mobile Communications f1 f3 f2 V(km/h) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

HUAWEI Confidential Page 14 .Loss • Diffraction loss T T R R • Penetration loss • Clutter loss HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd..

The reference angle of electromagnetic wave have great effect on penetration loss. HUAWEI Confidential . Ltd.. Signals are different at the indoor window and in the middle of room.Penetration Loss Indoor signals depend on penetration loss of building. Building materials have great effect on penetration loss. w1 ¦ Å0¦ Ì 0 d D w2 ¦ Å0¦ Ì 0 ¦ÅÌ ¦ E2 ¦È ¦È E1 WdBm XdBm Reflection and refraction of electromagnetic wave through the wall Page 15 Penetration loss=X-W=B dB HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

Ltd..Penetration Loss • Obstacle/penetration loss is: Partition obstruction: 5~20dB Floor obstruction: >20dB Obstruction of furniture and other barriers: 2~15dB Thick glass: 6~10dB Penetration loss of the carriage of the train: 15~30dB Penetration loss of lift: 30dB or so Loss of thick leaves: 10dB HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. HUAWEI Confidential Page 16 .

Ltd. HUAWEI Confidential Page 17 . road and bridge • Noise: natural noise and artificial noise • Climate: rain. And propagation environment is impacted by the following factors: • Landform (terrain): mountain. hill. waters.Radio Propagation Environment Radio propagation environment determines the propagation models directly.. snow and ice (tiny effect on UHF band) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. plain. and vegetation • Clutter: building.

but with lots of vegetation Urban Suburban Rural Mountainous areas Road Indoor HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. signals fail to diffract from the roof of building .1411-1 and specific conditions in China.Radio Propagation Environment Type of radio environment  Radio environment is classified as follows. according to ITU-R P. Propagation environment Dense urban Description Many tall buildings. Ltd.. Low and sparse buildings Low and sparse buildings. HUAWEI Confidential Page 18 . Signals can diffract from the roof due to low buildings and wide streets.

lower than average height of surrounding roofs Installed outdoors or indoors. lower than height of all roofs  Type of other new cells..Radio Propagation Environment Type of propagation environment  The corresponding cell type is as follows: Cell type Macro-cell Micro-cell Pico-cell Cell type >500 m 100~500m <100m Typical antenna installation Installed outdoors. such as Mini-cell… HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd. HUAWEI Confidential Page 19 . higher than average height of surrounding roofs Installed outdoors.

. HUAWEI Confidential Page 20 . Ltd.Principle of Radio Propagation and CW Test  Section 1 Basic Principle of Radio Propagation  Section 2 Theory of Propagation Model Tuning  Section 3 Purpose of CW Test  Section 4 Basic Principle of CW Test HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

Ltd. WCDMA common propagation models HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co..Radio Propagation Model Propagation model is used to predict the effect of terrain. obstacle and artificial environment on the path loss. HUAWEI Confidential Page 21 .

.Radio Propagation Model Common propagation models  Okumura/Hata model For: 900M-1500MHz  COST231-Hata model For: 1500-2000MHz  COST231 Walfish-Ikegami model For: 800M-2000MHz  Keenan-Motley model For indoor propagation Propagation model in UNET For macro cell on 300M-2000M HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. HUAWEI Confidential Page 22 . Ltd.

which must be a positive value Diffraction loss: diffraction loss through the path with barriers (dB) K5: multiplier factor of log(HTxeff)log(d) K6: multiplier factor of HRxeff HRxeff : effective height of Rx antenna (m) Kclutter: multiplier factor of for f(clutter) f(clutter): average weighted loss caused by clutter HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.Radio Propagation Model Model in UNET: L=K1 + K2log(d) + K3log(HTxeff) + K4×Diffraction + K5log(d)×log(HTxeff) + K6(HRxeff) + Kclutterf(clutter) K1: constant (dB) K2: multiplier factor of log(d) d: distance between Tx antenna and Rx antenna (m) K3: multiplier factor of log(HTxeff) HTxeff: effective height of Tx antenna (m) K4: multiplier factor of diffraction loss. HUAWEI Confidential Page 23 .. Ltd.

. HUAWEI Confidential Page 24 . Ltd.Principle of Radio Propagation and CW Test  Section 1 Basic Principle of Radio Propagation  Section 2 Theory of Propagation Model Tuning  Section 3 Purpose of CW Test  Section 4 Basic Principle of CW Test HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

. Ltd. HUAWEI Confidential Page 25 . and then tune the propagation parameters to improve the accuracy of coverage prediction. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.Purpose of CW Test GPS  Compare CW test data with prediction results.

. Ltd.Principle of Radio Propagation and CW Test  Section 1 Basic Principle of Radio Propagation  Section 2 Theory of Propagation Model Tuning  Section 3 Purpose of CW Test  Section 4 Basic Principle of CW Test HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. HUAWEI Confidential Page 26 .

Ltd. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.  Balance  The CW test data must represent the characteristic of electromagnetic wave by the proportion of different clutters in this area. HUAWEI Confidential Page 27 .Basic Principle of CW Test  Typification  The CW test data must represent the characteristic of electromagnetic wave in this area..

Ltd.. HUAWEI Confidential Page 28 .CONTENT Chapter 1 Principle of Radio Propagation and CW Test Chapter 2 CW Test Flow Chapter 3 Analysis of CW Test Data Chapter 4 Propagation Model Tuning HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

.CW Test Flow  Section 1 Site Selection  Section 2 Building Test Platform in Networking  Section 3 Drive Test HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. HUAWEI Confidential Page 29 . Ltd.

 Representation: Site selection should aim to cover all types of clutter (from the digital map) in the coverage zone.Site Selection  Principles of site selection  Number of sites: It is usually agreed that a minimum of 5 sites should be tested in large and dense city.  Obstacle: The data should be filtered in the subsequent processing if obvious obstacle exists. but one site is enough in normal city. HUAWEI Confidential Page 30 . which mainly depends on antenna height and EIRP. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. But reasonable inter-site distance should be ensured. Ltd.  Overlap: Increase measurement overlap area between each site as much as possible..  Multiple models: Define the corresponding zone of each model if the test environment requires multiple models to describe its propagation characteristics.

The building where the site is located should be higher than average height of surrounding buildings.Site Selection Standards of site selection a. HUAWEI Confidential Page 31 . c.. 5m HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. The obstacle mainly refers to the highest building on the roof where the antenna is installed. Ltd. b. Antenna height should be greater than 20m. The antenna should be 5m higher than the nearest obstacle.

CW Test Flow  Section 1 Site Selection  Section 2 Building Test Platform in Networking  Section 3 Drive Test HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd. HUAWEI Confidential Page 32 ..

GPS receiver. high-frequency signal source and antenna holder Rx subsystem: test receiver. test software and laptop Tx antenna Signal source TMA RF cable 1 RF cable 2 Rx antenna Power supply Drive test instrument Build-in GPS Laptop High frequency signal source HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. feeder. Ltd.. HUAWEI Confidential Page 33 .Building Test Platform in Networking Tx subsystem: Tx antenna.

HUAWEI Confidential Page 34 ..Building Test Platform in Networking Record the gain of the following parts on signals during networking: Tx power of signal source Loss of RF cable Gain of Tx antenna Gain of Rx antenna HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd.

HUAWEI Confidential Page 35 .CW Test Flow  Section 1 Site Selection  Section 2 Building Test Platform in Networking  Section 3 Drive Test HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.. Ltd.

Height: The test route must cover landforms with different height in this area if the landforms are up-and-down. the better. Number of test points: The more. Distance: The test route must cover different positions from the site in the area.. Ltd. Obstacle: Shadow areas behind this wall should be avoided when antenna signals are obstructed by the wall at a side. Length:The total distance of one CW test should be longer than 60km. HUAWEI Confidential Page 36 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.Drive Test Keep to the following standards to select a test path Landform: The test route must cover all main landforms in the area. Direction: The test points must be consistent on the horizontal and vertical route. Overlap: Overlap the test route in different sites as much as possible to improve the reliability of models.

Ltd.Drive Test Lee criteria for sampling: 50 samples by 40λ The maximum vehicle speed: Vmax=0. HUAWEI Confidential Page 37 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.8λ/Tsample Delete test results from the sampled data under abnormal conditions: Fading over 15~30db without reasonable causes In tunnels Under the viaducts Select test routes from the main lobe coverage area if directional antennas are adopted for a CW test..

CONTENT Chapter 1 Principle of Radio Propagation and CW Test Chapter 2 CW Test Flow Chapter 3 Analysis of CW Test Data Chapter 4 Propagation Model Tuning HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd.. HUAWEI Confidential Page 38 .

Ltd.Analysis of Test Data  Section 1 Data Filtering  Section 2 Data Dispersion  Section 3 Data Binning  Section 4 Format Conversion HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.. HUAWEI Confidential Page 39 .

Ltd. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Error data caused by inexact AP (antenna pattern). 2. 3. in the tunnel). HUAWEI Confidential Page 40 .. Data obtained when the distance to antenna is too near or far. 4. 5. Data tested in the places where GPS is unable to locate accurately (such as under the overhead rack. Data obtained with too weak signals.Data Filtering Data to be filtered is as follows: 1. Other data inconsistent with the requirements during the route design of CW test.

Ltd. HUAWEI Confidential Page 41 .Analysis of Test Data  Section 1 Data Filtering  Section 2 Data Dispersion  Section 3 Data Binning  Section 4 Format Conversion HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co..

also called intrinsic length HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.. the combination of long-term fading and space propagation loss 2L: average length between sampling areas. Ltd.Data Dispersion Propagation in mobile communications can be indicated as follows: X: distance 1 r(x) = m(x)r0(x) m( x)  Lr ( y)dy 2L x x L r(x): received signals r0(x): Raileigh Fading m(x): local mean value. HUAWEI Confidential Page 42 .

In this sense. the dispersion processing is required before the binning.e. 40 wavelength) Since the locating speed of GPS is far lower than the receiving speed of the receiver. i. the difference of test data and actual local mean value can be less than 1dB according to Lee criteria. Ltd. namely.  Intrinsic length is average length for binning (2G band is 6 m long.Data Dispersion The CW test is to obtain the local mean value of each geography location in some areas as far as possible. HUAWEI Confidential Page 43 . the difference of r(x) and m(x) should be the minimum value.. When the intrinsic length equals 40 wavelength and the number of sampling points is 50. effect of Raileigh Fading should be excluded. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Processing: − Equally distribute these records to the route section between two points in time sequence so that there will be sufficient points in every 6m range on test route. − The vehicle speed between two locating points is uniform.Data Dispersion The principle of dispersion processing is as follows: Conditions: − There are many test records arranged under each locating point in time sequence because the receiving speed of the receiver is far higher than the locating speed of GPS. − The time interval between every two measurement records is the same. Ltd. HUAWEI Confidential Page 44 .

. Ltd. HUAWEI Confidential Page 45 .Analysis of Test Data  Section 1 Data filtering  Section 2 Data Dispersion  Section 3 Data Binning  Section 4 Format Conversion HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

and perform the arithmetic binning for the data in each section to select some point for the location of mean value. Ltd.. Method 2: divide the path into sections in equal interval with 6m for each. and then take the grid center as the new location.Data Binning Objectives: Reserve the impact of slow fading but eliminate the fast fading Methods: Method 1: make grids for the whole area with 6m side. perform the arithmetic average for the data located in each grid. HUAWEI Confidential Page 46 . Tool: CW Data Editor HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

Ltd.Analysis of Test Data  Section 1 Data Filtering  Section 2 Data Dispersion  Section 3 Data Binning  Section 4 Format Conversion HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. HUAWEI Confidential Page 47 ..

Format Conversion The data format exported by Agilent E74xx Series is X Y CW_Power_List__ Freq__Hz CW_Power_List__A mpl__dBm Time Date Data format imported to UNET is X Y CW_Power_List__Ampl__dBm Format conversion can be implemented manually (saved as . HUAWEI Confidential Page 48 .. Ltd.dat file) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

HUAWEI Confidential Page 49 .CONTENT Chapter 1 Principle of Radio Propagation and CW Test Chapter 2 CW Test Flow Chapter 3 Analysis of CW Test Data Chapter 4 Propagation Model Tuning HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd..

Propagation Model Tuning  Section 1 Preparation  Section 2 Propagation Model Tuning HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. HUAWEI Confidential Page 50 .. Ltd.

HUAWEI Confidential Page 51 .Preparations  Installing network planning software: UNET is powerful planning and optimization software and model tuning is only one of its functional modules. Ltd.  Importing antenna pattern file Correctly import the antenna pattern varying with different manufacturers HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.. perform planning and optimization model tuning based on each project.  Creating a project In UNET.

Ltd.. HUAWEI Confidential Page 52 .Propagation Model Tuning  Section 1 Preparations  Section 2 Propagation Model Tuning HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

Propagation Model Tuning Flow HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd. HUAWEI Confidential Page 53 ..

HUAWEI Confidential Page 54 . Ltd. Select the effective antenna height. Select a calculation method of diffraction loss. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co..Propagation Model Tuning  Establishing a model Establish a standard macrocell model to be tuned.  Importing data Import CW test data file into the project.

Ltd.Propagation Model Tuning Map correction GPS locating in CW test usually adopts WGS84 and UTM projection.. digital maps in China do not use such projections and reference plane. Correction method: − Correct four parameters on rectangular coordinates in a digital map to realize the optimal match with the test data. However. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Correct digital maps if CW test data does not correspond to them. HUAWEI Confidential Page 55 .

HUAWEI Confidential Page 56 . HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Signal strength filtering: − Filter the data of which Signal is greater than -40dBm or Signal is less than 121dB.. Clutter filtering − Filter the Clutter in which sampling points are less than 300.Propagation Model Tuning Setting Filtering Distance filtering: − Filter the data of which r is less than 150m or r is greater than 3000m. Ltd.

log(Heff).Propagation Model Tuning Parameter tuning L=K1 + K2log(d) + K3log(Heff) + 4×Diffraction + K5log(d)×log(HTxeff) + K6(HRxeff) + Kclutterf(clutter) Tune such parameters as log(d).. Hmeff and Klutter to finally tune SPM propagation model. Diff. HUAWEI Confidential Page 57 . log(d)log(Heff). HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd.

HUAWEI Confidential Page 58 . Ltd..Propagation Model Tuning HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.

Propagation Model Tuning ERROR (measurement – prediction) Regression line calculated values for the variable HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.. Ltd. HUAWEI Confidential Page 59 .

Propagation Model Tuning HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. HUAWEI Confidential Page 60 .. Ltd.

55 0 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.83 0.90 5. HUAWEI Confidential Page 61 . Ltd.5 -6..2 44.Propagation Model Tuning Correction of propagation model parameters in a city Parameter K Reference value 23.

which indicates that the tuned model and actual test environment are well bound.. HUAWEI Confidential Page 62 . Ltd. Evaluate the correctness of the model with Std Dev. Make Std Dev less than 8 as much as possible in actual model tuning. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co.Propagation Model Tuning Analysis of correction results Analyze correctness of the acquired model after correction. which refer to the binding degree of the acquired model and actual test environment.

you should be able to master:  Principle and purpose of CW test  Process of CW test  Process of propagation model tuning HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES Co. Ltd..Summary After completing this course. HUAWEI Confidential Page 63 .

Thank you www.huawei.com .

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