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EMBEDDED SYSTEM

Microcontroller and microprocessor

SUBMITTED TO : Mr.MITAL H.O.D EC

Compiled by: SHIVANI SHIKHA EC

INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED SYSTEM


The embedded system is a combination of computer hardware, software either fixed in capability or programmable, that is specifically designed for a particular kind of application device. A computer is used in such devices primarily as a means to simplify the system design and to provide flexibility. Embedded systems employ the use of a RTOS (Real-Time Operating System).

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM

MICROCONTROLLER
A smaller computer. On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... Example:- Motorolas 6811, Intels 8051 and PIC 16X

CPU

RAM

ROM

A single chip
I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port

Microcontroller

8051 MICROCONTROLLER
The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970s. The 8051 family characteristics:
The 8051 family characteristics: 4K Bytes ROM 128 Bytes RAM two timer/counters (16 bit) A serial port 32 input/output port Interrupt controller

8051 INTERNAL ARCHITECTURE

IC 8051 IN DESCRIPTION

PIN DESCRIPTION
8051 Each

contains four I/O ports (P0 - P3) port can be used as input or output(bi-direction) 3 has multiple functions :

PORT

PORT PIN

ALTERNATE FUNCTION

P3.0 P3.1 P3.2 P3.3 P3.4 P3.5 P3.6 P3.7

RXD ( serial input port ) TXD (serial output port ) INT ( external interrupt 0 ) INT 1 ( external interrupt 1 ) T0 ( timer 0 external input) T1 ( timer 1 external input) WR (external data memory write strobe ) RD (external data memory read strobe)

IMPORTANT PINS AND OPERATIONS


1.

PSEN(out): Program store enable,the read signal for external program memory (active low).

2.

ALE(out): address latch enable,to latch outputs at PORT0 and PORT2.


EA(in):External Access Enable,active low to access external program memory locations 0 to 4K. RXD,TXD: UART pins for serial I/O on port 3. Vcc: (pin 40)Vcc provides supply voltage to the chip of +5v. GND: (pin 20) ground. XTAL1 and XTAL2 :(pins 19,18) provide external clock. One as quartz crystal oscillator and other as TTL oscillator.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

CONTINUED
8.

RST : (pin 9) reset. Upon applying high pulse to RST,the microcontroller will reset and all the values in the register will be lost. EA (pin 31) :External Access . EA pin is connected to Vcc and used to indicate the code is stored externally. PSEN (pin 29):Program Store Enable . This is an output pin and is connected to the OE pin of the ROM.

9.

10.

11.

ALE (pin 30): Address Latch Enable. It is an active pin and is active high. 8051 Port 0 provides both address and data. The ALE pin is used for de-multiplexing the address and data.

Microprocessor v/s microprocessor


Microcontroller Microprocessor CPU is stand-alone, RAM, CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip ROM, I/O, timer are fix amount of on-chip ROM, separate RAM, I/O ports designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM for applications in which cost, power and space are critical and I/O ports. single-purpose expensive Ex. 8051, PIC mc, Motorola general-purpose MCs, Phillips, etc. Ex. 8085,8086 mp, Motorola 6800, Intels 8086, etc.

The 8085 Microprocessor


The features of INTEL 8085 are : It is an 8 bit processor. It is a single chip N-MOS device with 40 pins. It has multiplexed address and data bus.(AD0-AD7). It works on 5 Volt dc power supply. The maximum clock frequency is 3 MHz while minimum frequency is 500kHz. It provides 74 instructions with 5 different addressing modes.

MICROPROCESSOR
General-purpose microprocessor

CPU for Computers No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself Example--Intels x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium
Data Bus Many chips on mother board Serial COM Port

CPU GeneralPurpose Microprocessor

RAM

ROM

I/O Port

Timer

Address Bus
General-Purpose Microprocessor System

IC 8085 Pin Description

IC 8085 PIN DESCRIPTION


AD0-AD7: Multiplexed Address and data lines.

A8-A15: Tri-stated higher order address lines.

ALE: Address latch enable is an output signal.It goes high when operation is started by processor .

S0,S1: These are the status signals used to indicate type of operation.

RD: Read is active low input signal used to read data from I/O device or memory.
WR:

Write is an active low output signal used write data on memory or an I/O device.

PIN DESCRIPTION:
READY: This an output signal used to check the status of output device.If it is low, P will WAIT until it is high.

TRAP: It is an Edge triggered highest priority , non mask able interrupt. After TRAP, restart occurs and execution starts from address 0024H.

RST 5.5,6.5,7.5: These are maskable interrupts and have low priority than TRAP.

INTR&INTA: INTR is a interrupt request signal after which P generates INTA or interrupt acknowledge signal.
IO/M:

This is output pin or signal used to indicate whether 8085 is working in I/O mode(IO/M=1) or Memory mode(IO/M=0 ).

PIN DESCRIPTION :
HOLD&HLDA:

HOLD is an input signal .When P receives HOLD signal it completes current machine cycle and stops executing next instruction. In response to HOLD P generates HLDA that is HOLD Acknowledge signal.
RESET

IN: This is input signal. When RESET IN is low p restarts and starts executing from location 0000H.
SID:

Serial input data is input pin used to accept serial 1 bit data .

X1

& X2 : These are clock input signals and are connected to external LC, or RC circuit. These are divide by two so if 6 MHz is connected to X1X2, the operating frequency becomes 3 MHz
VCC

& VSS: Power supply VCC=+ -5Volt& VSS=-GND reference.

APPLICATIONS

Communications. Automotive automatic braking. Military applications Missile

guidance systems. Industrial applications. Robotics. Cameras. Sound systems.

Moving message display

Digital clock

DVD player

Traffic Light

FUTURE APPLICATIONS

Smart card
Health card Robotics

ATM