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BY : Nikita Vyas (12069) Surabhi Raj Singh (12070) RaviRaj (12060) Shobhit Singh (12075) Amardeep Singh (12061)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it. It was founded on the claim that a central property of human beings, intelligence can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. Today it is an essential part of the technology industry and it is also related to many other fields mathematics, philosophy, biology, etc.

Thinking machines appeared in acient societies (Greece, Egypt, etc.) Humans believed that intelligence were built in machines- they worshipped them Sacred statues in Greece and Egypt 20th century: new approach to buiding intelligent machines based on discoveries in neurology and by the invention of digital computer 1956: the field of AI research was founded at a conference onthe campus of Dartmouth College Participants of the conference: John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newel, Herbert Simonthey became the leaders of AI

Turing Test
(developed by Alan Turing, a British Mathematician)

It was proposed by Alan Turing in 1950 he concluded that a machine could be seen as being intelligent if it could "fool" a human into believing if it was human. A benchmark for progress in AI The process: a human interrogator communicates with a test subject by a typewriter (or any other text-only channel) The main issue: can the interrogator tell whether the subject is human or machine?

Specific characteristics of intelligent behavior:

1. Learn from experience and apply the knowledge acquired from experience. 2. Handle complex situations. 3. Solve problems when important information is missing. 4. Determine what is important. 5. React quickly and correctly to a new situation. 6. Understand visual images. 7. Process and manipulate symbols. 8. Be creative and imaginative. 9. Use heuristics.

Application Of AI
AI has successfully been used in a wide range of fields including medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot conrol, law, scientific discovery, video games

Purpose: Intelligent Agents

An agent is a device that responds to stimuli from its environment. Sensors: to recieve stimuli Actuators: to react The goal of artificial intelligence is to build agents that behave intelligently.

Advantages of AI
Smarter artificial intelligence may replace human jobs, freeing people for other pursuits by automating manufacturing and transportation. Self-modifying, self-writing, and learning softwares can relieve programmers of the burdensome tasks of specifying the functions of different programs. Self-replicating applications can make deployment easier and less resource-intensive. AI can see relationships in enormous or diverse bodies of data that a human could not.

Risks associated with AI

Unforeseen, unpredictable impacts of new features. Self-modifying, when combined with self-replicating, can lead to dangerous, unexpected results, such as a new and frequently mutating computer virus. Rapid advances in AI could lead to massive structural unemployment. AI utilizing non-transparent learning (i.e. neural networks) is never completely predictable.

Ethical Considerations
Artificial life may be viewed as more expendable than human life, so AI will be used as cheap labor, or perhaps slaves, thus increasing profits for corporations. We do have to take responsibility for our creations, so if the risks associated with creating a form of AI are too great, then we should not pursue that development. Will AI ever reach a state when it can demand rights for itself? And if it does, can those rights be granted to it?

The Future of AI
The idea of AI is being replaced by artificial life - anything with a form or body. The consensus among scientists is that a requirement for life is that it should have an embodiment in some physical form, but this may change. Programs are not able to fit this requirement for life yet. Very sophisticated AI may not be far; with sufficient computation power (such as that offered by quantum computers) it is possible to evolve AI without much programming effort. Today, concerns include mutating viruses and the reliability of AI. Scientist should always remain cautious over the dangers of developing new features for AI.

The Problems Of AI
The problem of stimulating intelligence has been broken down into a number of specific sub-problems These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers would like an intelligent system to display 1.Deduction, reasoning, problem solving 2.Knowledge representation 3.Planning 4.Learning 5. Natural language processing 7.Motion and manipulation 8.Perception 9. Social intelligence 10.Creativity 11. General intelligence

The difference between Natural and Artificial Intelligence

Natural Intelligence
(Human) The ability to use sensors (eyes, ears, touch, smell) The ability to be creative and imaginative The ability to learn from experience The ability to be adaptive The ability to afford the cost of acquiring intelligence The ability to use a variety of information source The ability to acquire large amount of external information The ability to make complex calculations HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH LOW

Artificial Intelligence

The ability to transfer information

The ability to make a series of calculations rapidly and accurately



Major Branches of Artificial Intelligence






Major Branches of Artificial Intelligence 1. Robotics Involve developing mechanical or computer devices that perform tasks requiring a high degree of precision or that are hazardous for humans.

The Rover was a remote-controlled robot used by NASA to explore the surface of Mars.

an orangutan robot, was a pure research project to develop some novel theories about the fundamental operating principles of the brain.

2. Vision Systems Include hardware and software that permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures.

3. Natural language processing Computers understand and react to statements and commands made in a natural language, such as English.

4. Learning system Computer changes how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback. 5. Neural network Computer system that can act like or simulate the functioning of the human brain.

6. Expert Systems Consists of hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a human expert.