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By.

Jose Villanueva

Matter is anything that has mass and volume. The mass of matter is measured by the acceleration a body has when a force is applied. The greater the mass, the slower the acceleration for the same force. The volume is determined by the space in three dimensions that it occupies. Einstein showed that all matter can be converted to energy by using the formula E = mc2

Elements: Elements: matter is composed of atoms. Matter is made up of elements, they're atoms with specific properties. The number of electrons, protons , and neutrons defines each element . EXAMPLE: hydrogen and helium. Both are elements. They both have electrons, protons and neutrons but the numbers of each are different. Compounds: A compound is composed of two or more elements of different kinds that are combined.The properties of a compound are different than the elements. The elements that are in a compound are always composed with the same elements in the same ratios every time.

Physical:

Properties: Properties that do not change the chemical nature of matter Examples of physical properties are: color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, infra-red spectrum, attraction (paramagnetic) or repulsion (diamagnetic) Changes: Physical changes are concerned with energy and states of matter. A physical change does not produce a new substance. Changes in state or phase (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, sublimation) are physical changes. Examples of physical changes: crushing a can, melting an ice cube, and breaking a brick,

Chemical:

Properties: Properties that do change the chemical nature of matter Examples of chemical properties are: heat of combustion, reactivity with water, PH, and electromotive force. Changes:. A chemical change produces a new substance. Examples of chemical changes: combustion (burning), cooking an egg, rusting of an iron pan, and mixing hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to make salt and water.

Pure substance: cannot be separated into 2 or more substances by physical or mechanical means is homogeneous, has uniform composition throughout the whole sample. its properties are constant throughout the whole sample its properties do not depend on how it is prepared or purified has constant chemical composition A mixture: can be separated into 2 or more substances by physical or mechanical means displays the properties of the pure substances making it up its composition can be varied by changing the proportion of pure substances making it up heterogeneous substances, ones with non-uniform composition throughout the sample, are always mixtures

"atom" is from the greek word "a-tomos" the word means "indivisible". This was invented by Leucippe of Milet. In the 17th and 18th centuries, chemists came up with a physical basis for this idea, they showed that it could not be further broken down by chemical methods. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, they found subatomic components and structure inside the atom.