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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PETROLEUM AND FRACTIONAL CATEGORIZATION

Presented by Ms. Sayanima Kisku Mr. Veera Reddy Mr. Anup Ramachandran Mr. Jitesh Kumar Nath Mr. Nabo Jyoti Modak
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OUTLINE

1. Introduction 2. Classification of Hydrocarbons 3. Chemical composition of Petroleum 4. Types of Crude Oil 5. Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil 6. Other Derivative of Crude

INTRODUCTION
Petroleum is a form of bitumen composed principally of hydrocarbons and existing in the gaseous or liquid state in its natural reservoir. The word petroleum originates from the Latin petra (rock) and oleum (oil) The main forms of petroleum are natural gas, condensate (which is gaseous in the ground but condenses at the surface), and crude oil, the liquid part of petroleum.
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CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBONS

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PETROLEUM


Composition of Elements in petroleum by weight Element Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulphur Metals Percentage 83 to 87% 10 to 14% 0.1 to 2% 0.05 to 1.5% 0.05 to 6.0% < 0.1%
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PETROLEUM (CONTINUED)


Composition of Hydrocarbons by weight Hydro carbon Paraffins Naphthenes Aromatics Asphaltics Average 30% 49% 15% 6% Range 15 to 60% 30 to 60% 3 to 30% remainder
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PARAFFINS Structural formulae Paraffins /Alkanes ( CnH2n + 2)

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NAPTHENES Structural formulae Napthenes/ Cycloparaffins( CnH2n )


Cyclopentane C5H10

Cyclohexane - C6H12
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AROMATICS Structural formulae ( CnH2n-6 )


Benzene C6H6

Toluene - C7H8
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NONHYDROCARBONS-NITROGEN, SULFUR AND OXYGEN COMPOUNDS (ASPHALTICS)

Napthol C10H2OH

Pyrrole-C4H4NH

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TYPES OF CRUDE OIL


Paraffin based
These contain higher molecular weight paraffins which are solid at room temperature, but little or no asphaltic (bituminous) matter. They can produce high-grade lubricating oils.

Asphaltic based

Contain large proportions of asphaltic matter, and little or no paraffin. Some are predominantly naphthenes so yield a lubricating oil that is more sensitive to temperature changes than the paraffin-base crudes.

Mixed based

The "gray area" between the two types above. Both paraffins and naphthenes are present, as well as aromatic hydrocarbons. Most crudes fit this category.
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FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL

Petroleum is separated into its various molecular sizes by distillation. Distillation is the principal method for separating crude oil into useful products. It is done in a refinery. Distillation separates chemicals by the difference in how easily they vaporize. The two major types of classical distillation include continuous distillation and batch distillation. distillation. Continuous distillation, as the name says, continuously takes a feed and separates it into two or more products. Batch distillation takes on lot (or batch) at a time of feed and splits it into products by selectively removing the more volatile fractions over time.
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FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL (CONTD)

A refinery tower is equivalent to a series of individual distillation flasks, in which the distillate from the first flask is condensed in the second flask and redistilled to produce a distillate for the third flask. Instead of flasks, the tower has condensation plates. The vapour distilled from one of the chambers rises to the chamber above and passes through the condensed liquid of that chamber. Each overlying chamber in the tower condenses successively lighter and smaller molecules, until only the light gasoline escapes from the top At the bottom of the tower are large and heavy molecules that can not penetrate as gases through the first plate and so end up in the residuum. The tower is run continuously by taking products out at various levels in the tower while continuously introducing fresh crude oil
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FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL (CONTD)

A visual illustrating the process of fractional distillation of crude oil

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SUMMARIZING THE FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION PROCESS OF CRUDE OIL

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OTHER DERIVATIVES
Alkenes (olefins) which can be manufactured into plastics or other compounds Plastics Lubricants (produces light machine oils, motor oils, and greases, adding viscosity stabilizers as required)

Lube

Wax

Wax, used in the packaging of frozen foods, among others. Paraffin wax used in petroleum jelly and candles

Heavy ends

Asphalt, Bulk Tar used in laying of roads, shipbuilding etc

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