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Mathematical fundamental in pharmacokinetic and definitions

The second Meeting

• The physicochemical characteristics of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, or drug substance), the dosage form or the drug, and the route of administration are critical determinants of the in-vivo performance, safety and efficacy of the drug product. • Biopharmaceutics is the science that examines this interrelationship of the physicochemical properties of the drug, the dosage form in which the drug is given, and the route of administration on the rate and extent of systemic drug absorption.

• Biopharmaceutics involves factors that influence (1) the stability of the drug within the drug product. (2) the release of the drug from the drug product. (3) the rate of dissolution/release of the drug at the absorption site. and (4) the systemic absorption of the drug .

Correlations Biopharmaceutics. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacology .

and elimination (ie. The experimental aspect of pharmacokinetics involves the development of biologic sampling techniques. . The description of drug distribution and elimination is often termed drug disposition. excretion and metabolism). distribution.Pharmacokinetics • Pharmacokinetics is the science of the kinetics of drug absorption. • The study of pharmacokinetics involves both experimental and theoretical approaches. and data collection and manipulation. analytical methods for the measurement of drugs and metabolites.

in order to optimize efficacy and to prevent any adverse toxicity .Pharmacokinetics • The theoretical aspect involves the development of pharmacokinetic models that predict drug disposition after drug administration • Pharmacokinetics is also applied to therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for very potent drugs such as those with a narrow therapeutic range.

. which are then recommended by the manufacturer to produce the desired pharmacologic response in the majority of the anticipated patient population • Clinical pharmacokinetics is the application of pharmacokinetic methods to drug therapy. Clinical pharmacokinetics involves a multidisciplinary approach to individually optimized dosing strategies based on the patient's disease state and patient-specific considerations.Clinical Pharmacokinetics • During the drug development process. large numbers of patients are tested to determine optimum dosing regimens.

Pharmacodynamics • Pharmacodynamics refers to the relationship between the drug concentration at the site of action (receptor) and pharmacologic response. including biochemical and physiologic effects that influence the interaction of drug with the receptor • The interaction of a drug molecule with a receptor causes the initiation of a sequence of molecular events resulting in a pharmacologic or toxic response .

and interpretation of drug safety evaluation studies and in validating doserelated exposure in animals.Toxicokinetics • Toxicokinetics is the application of pharmacokinetic principles to the design. Toxicokinetic data aids in the interpretation of toxicologic findings in animals and extrapolation of the resulting data to humans . conduct.

Plasma Level–Time Curve .

If 20 mg of drug are added to a container of water and result in a concentration of 0. What are the units for concentration? 2. What amount of drug is contained within 20. what are the units in M? 4.5 mL of the solution? In 0. Convert the units in the above solution from mg/mL to g/L and g/uL. If the molecular weight of the drug is 325.Math Self-Exam 1. what volume of water was in the container? .55 mg/L. A drug solution has a concentration of 50 mg/mL.4 L? What volume of the solution will contain 30 mg of drug? 3.

b.5 x + 2 a. Solve the following equations for x: a. what is x? 6.44 c. If x = 0. For the following equation: Y = 0.22 . If y = 4.1. Sketch a plot of the equation. what is y? d. Describe the relevance of each part of this equation. log x = 0. e x = 0.6.95 b.Continue 5. ln x = 1. c.

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Exponents .

Logarithms .


Graphs .


Curve Fitting .

Slope of a Straight Line .