The Roman Empire

Chapter 6, Section 2

History of the Republic

From 509 BC to 27 BC, Rome was governed as a republic – this also coincided with Rome’s vast power.

Citizens of Rome would gather at an assembly to elect their own officials. The chief officials of Rome were called consuls and there were two of them.

They were advised by a Senate. This was made up of leading citizens of Rome and when they met, the Senate would discuss issues such as proposed new laws, financial issues affecting Rome etc. There were about 600 men in the Senate. They were usually from rich noble families and what they thought went a long way to determining Roman law.

The Republic Collapses

Economic Turmoil
– Gap between rich and poor widens as Roman Republic grows. – As Rome expanded, many wealthy Romans neglected civic duties. They only wanted to gain more wealth, power – Farmers and former soldiers lose to large estates and become homeless. – Two tribunes, Tiberius and Gaius, try to help the poor, but are murdered. – Civil war—conflict between groups within the same country begins.

The Republic Collapses

Military Upheaval
– Military becomes less disciplined and disloyal. – Soldiers recruited from the poor; show loyalty only to their generals – After the expulsion of the kings, Rome was ruled by its aristocrats (roughly, the patricians) who abused their privileges. This led to a struggle between the people (plebeians) – Patricians won in 82 B.C.; Sulla became dictator

Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar

After Sullaʼs death, other generals rose to power  One was Julius Caesar—born around 100 B.C. into old, noble family  A Military Leader & An Ambitious General  Caesar fought in Asia Minor and Spain  He proved himself a great general in a military campaign against Gaul  -Caesarʼs conquest of Gaul brought him fame, fortune

The Republic Collapses

Julius Caesar Takes Control
– Military leader Julius Caesar is elected consul in 59 B.C. – Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey form a triumvirate—a group of three leaders. – Military victories give Caesar increasing popularity and power. – Pompey fears Caesar’s growing power and challenges him. – Caesar defeats Pompey’s armies in Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt

Dictator for Life  • Caesar was a great politician, reformer; was popular with plebeians  • Many powerful Romans, including patrician senators, opposed Caesar  After returning from Gaul, Senate ordered Caesar to disband army  - Caesar instead led army to Italy, fought for control; won in 46 B.C.  • Senate appointed him ruler; was named dictator for life in 44 B.C.

The Republic Collapses

Caesar’s Reforms
– Caesar makes reforms: grants wider citizenship, creates jobs for the poor. – expanded Senate, enforced laws,

Assassination and Legacy  Caesar assassinated in March 15, 44 B.C. by group of senators. Some feared he would become king, have descendants rule after him

groupsʼ leaders were eventually killed or committed suicide Reformer or tyrant, Caesarʼs rule and death would end republic

The Republic Collapses

Beginning of the Empire
– 43 B.C. Caesar’s supporters take control; become Second Triumvirate. – Octavian, Mark Antony, Lepidus alliance ends in jealousy and violence. – In 31 B.C. Mark Antony and Cleopatra’s forces are defeated at Actium – Octavian accepts title of Augustus, ―exalted one,‖ and rules Rome.

History of Rome - Roman Republic Timeline Timeline Dates 509 BC Timeline of Important Events and Dates in the Roman Republic Rome replaced the Etruscan rulers with a Republic during the History of Rome. The revolt was led by Lucius Junius Brutus who became the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first Consuls of Rome Appointment of the first-ever dictator, T. Larcius The Punic Wars - a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage by the Roman Republic 260 BC Rome builds its first major fleet 202 BC Battle of Zama, Scipio defeats Hannibal

501 BC 264-146

88 BC 78 BC 73 BC 71 BC 70 BC

Civil War in Rome
Sulla marches on Rome and becomes Dictator Death of Sulla Outbreak of Third Servile War, led by the slave and gladiator Spartacus Revolt of Spartacus crushed by Pompey and Crassus Crassus and Pompey become joint consuls of the Roman Republic

59 BC 59 - 53BC

Julius Caesar becomes consul an important event in the History of Rome Pompey, Marcus Licinius Crassus Gaius Julius Caesar dominate the Late Roman republic through a political alliance called the First Triumvirate

58 BC 55 BC
49 BC

Julius Caesar campaigns in Gaul Julius Caesar attempts to invade Britain and succeeds in 54 BC
Caesar's army crosses the Rubicon and Civil War begins between Caesar and the Republican forces of Pompey Julius Caesar is victorious, becomes dictator of the Roman Republic and then conquers Gaul Caesar invades Egypt and appoints Cleopatra queen Julius Caesar is assassinated; Marcus Antony controls Rome The Second Triumvirate established in the Roman Republic between Octavian (Julius Caesar's adoptive son) and Marc Antony Octavian takes control of Italy Battle of Actium, Octavian defeats Marc Antony and Queen Cleopatra Octavian, became, as Augustus Caesar, the first emperor of Rome and the Roman Republic comes to an end - The Fascinating History of Rome

47 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 31 BC 27BC

A Vast and Powerful Empire

Pax Romana

A Sound Government

– Under Augustus, Rome moves from a republic to an empire. – Power no longer resides with citizens, but in a single ruler. – Rome enjoys 200 years of peace and prosperity known as Pax Romana
– Augustus, Rome’s ablest ruler, creates a lasting system of government.
 Glorifies Rome with beautiful public buildings  Sets up a civil service to administer the empire

A Vast and Powerful Empire

Agriculture and Trade
– Agriculture is the most important industry in the empire; 90% of Romans farm. – Common coin, denarius, makes trade within empire easier – Rome has a vast trading network which includes China and India. – Network of Roman roads links the empire to Persia and Russia.

The Roman World

Slaves and Captivity
– Slavery is a significant part of Roman life in both cities and farms. – Some slaves become gladiators; forced to fight to the death.

Gods and Goddesses
– Early Romans honored guardian spirits and gods Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. – Worship of emperor becomes part of official religion of Rome.

The Roman World

Society and Culture
– Rich live well; most people are poor, receive grain from government. – 150 holidays and Colosseum events were created to control the masses.

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