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KNL 1053 ANALOG ELECTRONICS

Chapter 1 Semiconductor Diodes

MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN

TOPIC OUTLINES
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SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL COVALENT BONDING AND INSTRINSIC MATERIAL ENERGY LEVEL EXTRINSIC N-TYPE AND P-TYPE MATERIAL SEMICONDUCTOR BIASING ZENER REGION IDEAL VERSUS PRACTICAL DIODE RESISTANCE LEVEL DIODE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT TRANSITION AND DIFFUSION CAPACITANCE REVERSE RECOVERY GIME DIODE SPECIFICATION SHEET

SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL
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Semi – a range of levels midway between two limits Conductor – any material that will support a generous flow of charge when a voltage source of limited magnitude ia appilied across its terminals Insulator – material that offers a very low level of conductivity under pressure from an applied voltage source Semiconductor – material that has a conductivity level somewhere between the extremes of an insulator and a conductor @ material that have a conductivity between a good conductor and that an insulator 3 semiconductors used most frequently in the construction of electronic devices are Ge, Si and GaAs

MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN

COVALENT BONDING AND INTRINSIC MATERIALS
 

Every atom is composed of 3 basic particles: electron, proton and neutron In the lattice structure, neutrons + protons form the nucleus and electrons appear in fixed orbits around the nucleus Bohr model for 3 materials:

MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN

COVALENT BONDING AND INTRINSIC MATERIALS

Atomic structure of (a) silicon; (b) germanium; and (c) gallium and arsenic.

MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN

COVALENT BONDING AND INTRINSIC MATERIALS     Gallium – trivalent Silicon & Germanium – tetravalent Arsenic – pentavalent Valence .indicate that the ionization potential required to remove any one of these electrons from the atomic structure is significantly lower than that required for any other electron in the structure MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

COVALENT BONDING AND INTRINSIC MATERIALS  Atom bonding is strengthened by the sharing of electrons called as covalent bonding Covalent bonding of the silicon atom Covalent bonding of the GaAs crystal MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

COVALENT BONDING AND INTRINSIC MATERIALS     Covalent bond may break by external natural causes such as light energy in the form of photons and thermal energy (heat) from the surrounding medium to produce „free‟ state electron At room temperature. essentially as pure as can be made available through modern technology Intrinsic carriers – free electrons in a material due only to external causes MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . there are approximately 1.5 X 1010 free carriers in 1 cm3 of intrinsic material equivalent with 15 billion electrons in a space smaller than a small sugar cube Intrinsic – any semiconductor material that has been carefully refined to reduce the number of impurities to a very low level.

5 X 1010 2.COVALENT BONDING AND INTRINSIC MATERIALS Intrinsic Carriers Semiconductor GaAs Si Ge Intrinsic Carriers (per cubic cm) 1. µn Semiconductor GaAs Si Ge µn (cm2/Vs) 8500 1500 3900 MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .5 X 1013 Relative Mobility Factor.7 X 106 1.

an increasing number of valence electrons absorb sufficient thermal energy to break covalent bond and contribute to the number of free carriers Conductor Resistance increase with the increase of heat (positive temperature coefficient) The numbers of carriers in a conductor do not increase significantly with temperature.COVALENT BONDING AND INTRINSIC MATERIALS   Ability to change the characteristics of a material is called doping process Different between conductor and semiconductor: Semiconductor Increase level of conductivity with the application of heat (negative temperature coefficient) As temperature rises. but the vibration pattern about a relatively fixed location makes it increasingly difficult for a sustained flow of carriers through the material MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

and a conductor MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . a semiconductor. the higher is the energy state and any electron that has left its parent atom has a higher energy state than any electron in the atomic structure Energy levels: (a) discrete levels in isolated atomic structures.ENERGY LEVELS  The farther an electron is from the nucleus. (b) conduction and valence bands of an insulator.

greater the possibility of energy being released in the form of visible or invisible light waves eV – electron volts W (energy) = QV MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . the wider the energy gap. an electron in the valence band of GaAs must gain more energy than one in silicon or germanium to enter the conduction band Energy gap requirements reveals the sensitivity of each type of semiconductor to changes in temperature In LEDs.ENERGY LEVELS       An electron in the valence band of silicon must absorb more energy than one in the valence band of germanium to become a free carrier. Similarly.

p-type MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .EXTRINSIC MATERIAL: N-TYPE AND P-TYPE MATERIALS   Extrinsic material – semiconductor material that has been subjected to the doping process Extrinsic material – n-type .

EXTRINSIC MATERIAL: N-TYPE   Created by introducing impurity elements that have 5 valence electron such as antimony. arsenic. phosphorus Diffused impurities with five valence electrons are called donor atoms Antimony impurity in n-type material Effect of donor impurities on the energy band structure MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

EXTRINSIC MATERIAL: P-TYPE    Created by introducing impurity elements that have 3 valence electron such as boron. gallium. indium Diffused impurities with five valence electrons are called acceptor atoms Vacancy atom is called as hole Boron impurity in p-type material MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

EXTRINSIC MATERIAL: N-TYPE AND P-TYPE MATERIALS  The resulting from the doping: p-type and n-type are electrically neutral MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

EXTRINSIC MATERIAL  Electron versus hole flow Electron versus hole flow MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

EXTRINSIC MATERIAL  Majority and Minority Carriers (a) n-type material. (b) p-type material MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

SEMICONDUCTOR 3D ANIMATION .

reverse-bias and forward-bias. a two-terminal device results with 3 option bias available. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . resulting in a lack of free carriers in the region near the junction. If lead are connected to the ends of each material. Bias refers to the application of an external voltage across the two terminals of the device to extract a response.SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING     When two materials are “joined” the electrons and holes in the region of the junction will combine. The region of uncovered positive and negative ions is called the depletion region due to the “depletion” of free carriers in the region. no bias.

(b) a diode symbol. (a) An internal distribution of charge. A p–n junction with no external bias. The absence of a voltage across a resistor results in zero current through it.SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING NO APPLIED BIAS (V = 0V)   No external voltage applied. (c) demonstration that the net carrier flow is zero at the MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS external terminal of the device when VD = 0 V. with the defined polarity and the current direction. DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING NO APPLIED BIAS (V = 0V)     If the voltage applied across the diode has the same polarity across the diode. The closer the minority carriers is to the junction. it will be considered a positive voltage. the greater is the attraction for the layer of negative ions and the less is the opposition offered by the positive ions in the depletion region of n-type material. If the reverse. it is a negative voltage. Under no-bias conditions. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . any minority carriers (holes) in n-type material that find themselves within the depletion region will pass quickly into p-type material.

The shield of negative ions in p-type material migrate into the area beyond the depletion region of p-type material. Relative magnitudes of the flow vectors are such that the net flow in either direction is zero. However. the number of majority carriers is so large in n-type material that there will invariably be a small number of majority carriers with sufficient kinetic energy to pass through the depletion region into p-type material.SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING NO APPLIED BIAS (V = 0V)     The majority carriers (electrons) of n-type material must overcome the attractive forces of the layer of positive ions in n-type material. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

the number of uncovered negative ions will increase in ptype material. The number of minority carriers. effectively reducing the majority carrier flow to zero.SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING REVERSE-BIAS (VD < 0V)       External potential of V volts is applied across the p-n junction such that the positive terminal is connected to n-type material and negative terminal is connected to p-type material. For similar reasons. however. The net effect. therefore is a widening of depletion region. The number of uncovered positive ions in the depletion region of n-type material will increase due to the large number of free electrons drawn to the positive potential of the applied voltage. entering the depletion region will not change. resulting in minority-carrier flow vectors of the same magnitude with no applied voltage MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . The widening of depletion region will establish too great a barrier for majority carriers to overcome.

Term saturation comes from the fact that it reaches its maximum level quickly and does not change significantly with increases in the reverse-bias potential.SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING REVERSE-BIAS (VD < 0V)    The current that exists under reverse-bias condition is called the reverse saturation current and represented by Is. except for high power devices. The reverse saturation current is seldom more than a few microamperes. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING REVERSE-BIAS (VD < 0V) Reverse-biased p–n junction. (a) Internal distribution of charge under reverse-bias conditions. (b) reverse-bias polarity and direction of reverse saturation current MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING FORWARD-BIAS (VD > 0V)   Also known as “on” condition Established by applying the positive potential to the p-type material and negative potential to n-type material. Internal distribution of charge under forward-bias conditions forward-bias polarity and direction of resulting current MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

the depletion region continue to decrease in width until a flood of electrons can pass through the junction. As the applied bias increases in magnitude. The resulting minority carrier flow of electrons from p-type material and n-type material (and holes from n-type material to p-type material) has not changed in magnitude (since the conduction level is controlled primarily by the limited number of impurities in the material) However. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . resulting in an exponential rise in current.SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING FORWARD-BIAS (VD > 0V)     The application of a forward-bias potential VD will “pressure” electrons in the n-type material and holes in p-type material to recombine with the ions near the boundary and reduce the width of the depletion region. the reduction in the width of the depletion region has resulted in a heavy majority flow across the junction.

6 X 10-19C MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . for forward and reverse-bias region: ID =IS (eVD/nVT-1) Is = reverse saturation current VD = applied forward-bias across the diode n = ideality factor. it has a range between 1 and 2 depending a wide variety of factors VT = kT/q (V) k = Boltzmann‟s constant = 1. which is function of the operating conditions and physical construction.SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE BIASING FORWARD-BIAS (VD > 0V)  General characteristics of semiconductor diode can be defined through Shockley‟s equation.38 X 10-23J/K T = temperature in kelvin (273 + the temperature in 0C) q = magnitude of electronic charge = 1.

PN JUNCTION BIASING .

ZENER REGION   The current increases at the a very rapid rate in a direction opposite to that of the positive voltage region. VZ Zener region MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . The reverse-bias potential that results in this dramatic change in characteristics is called Zener potential.

the velocity of the minority carriers responsible for reverse saturation current Is will also increase. That is. These additional carriers can then aid the ionization process to the point where a high avalanche current is established and the avalanche breakdown region determined. their velocity and associated kinetic energy (Wk=1/2mv2)will be sufficient to release additional carriers through collisions with otherwise stable atomic structures.ZENER REGION     As the voltage across the diode increases in the reverse-bias region. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . the ionization process will result whereby valence electrons absorb sufficient energy to leave the parent atom. Eventually.

will contribute to the sharp change in the characteristics. a strong electric field in the region of the junction that can disrupt the bonding forces within the atom and „generate‟ carriers. Although the Zener breakdown mechanism is a significant contributor only at lower levels of VZ. as VZ decreases to a very low levels. another mechanism called Zener breakdown. It occurs. and diodes employing this unique characteristic of p-n junction are called Zener diodes. such as -5V. this sharp change in the characteristic at any level is called Zener region. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .ZENER REGION     The avalanche region (VZ) can be brought closer to the vertical axis by increasing the doping levels in p-and n-type material However.

In order to get higher PIV.ZENER REGION     The maximum reverse-bias potential that can be applied before entering the Zener region is called the peak inverse voltage (PIV) or peak reverse voltage (PRV). Diodes are also connected in parallel to increase the current-carrying capacity. At a fixed temperature. diodes with same characteristics can be connected in series. the reverse saturation current of a diode increases with an increase in the applied reverse bias. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

ZENER REGION Comparison of Ge. and GaAs diodes MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . Si.

In forward-bias region the characteristics of a silicon diode shift to the left at a rate of 2.5mV per centigrade degree increase in temperature In the reverse-bias region the reverse saturation current of a silicon diode doubles for every 100C rise in temperature The reverse breakdown voltage of a semiconductor diode will increase or decrease with temperature depending on the Zener potential MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .ZENER REGION     Temperature can have a marked effect on the characteristics of a semiconductor diode.

ZENER REGION  Variation in Silicon diode characteristics with temperature change: MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

IDEAL VERSUS PRACTICAL  Ideal versus actual semiconductor characteristics MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

RESISTANCE LEVEL  3 difference level: DC or Static Resistance AC or Dynamic Resistance Average AC Resistance MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

the higher the current through a diode.RESISTANCE LEVEL DC OR STATIC RESISTANCE   The application of a dc voltage to a circuit containing a semiconductor diode will result in an operating point on the characteristic curve that will not change with time. the lower is the dc resistance level MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . RD = VD/ID In general.

a. ID = 20mA c.RESISTANCE LEVEL DC OR STATIC RESISTANCE Example: Determine the dc resistance levels for the diode. VD = -10V MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . ID = 2mA b.

In general. the lower the Q-point of operation (smaller current or lower voltage). The point with no applied varying signal is called Q-point. which means “still or unvarying” will define a particular change in voltage and current that can be used to determine the ac or dynamic resistance for diode characteristics. the higher is ac resistance rd = Δ Vd/ΔId MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .RESISTANCE LEVEL AC OR DYNAMIC RESISTANCE     Sinusoidal input is applied The varying input will move the instantaneous operating point up and down a region of the characteristics and thus defines a specific change in current and voltage.

RESISTANCE LEVEL AC OR DYNAMIC RESISTANCE  Ac or dynamic resistance: MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

Compare the results of parts (a) and (b) to the dc resistance at each current level MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN . a. Determine the ac resistance at ID = 2mA b. Determine the ac resistance at ID = 25mA c.RESISTANCE LEVEL AC OR DYNAMIC RESISTANCE Example: For the characteristic below.

RESISTANCE LEVEL AC OR DYNAMIC RESISTANCE rd = 26mV/ID MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

the resistance associated with the device is called average ac resistance By definition. the resistance determined by a straight line drawn between the two intersection established by the maximum and minimum values of input voltage. rav = Δ Vd/ΔId ∣pt to pt MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .RESISTANCE LEVEL AVERAGE AC RESISTANCE   If the input signal is sufficiently large to produce a broad swing.

the lower the level of currents used to determine the average resistance. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .RESISTANCE LEVEL AVERAGE AC RESISTANCE  As with the dc and ac resistance levels. the higher is the resistance level.

3 types: Piecewise-Linear Equivalent Circuit Simplified Equivalent Circuit Ideal Equivalent Circuit MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .DIODE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS   An equivalent circuit is a combination of elements properly chosen to best represent the actual terminal characteristics of a device or system in a particular operating region.

Components of the piecewise-linear equivalent circuit MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .DIODE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS PIECEWISE-LINEAR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Defining the piecewise-linear equivalent circuit using straight-line segments to approximate the characteristic curve.

DIODE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS SIMPLIFIED EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Simplified equivalent circuit for the silicon semiconductor diode MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

DIODE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS IDEAL EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Ideal diode and its characteristics MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

TRANSITION AND DIFFUSION CAPACITANCE    Every electronic or electrical device is frequency sensitive Transition or depletion-region capacitance is applied in reverse-bias region Diffusion or storage capacitance is applied in forward-bias region MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

trr = ts (storage time) + tt (transition time) Most commercially available switching diodes have trr in the range of a few nanosecond to 1µs. It is the sum of two interval.REVERSE RECOVERY TIME    Important for high-speed switching applications. MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

DIODE SPECIFICATION SHEETS MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE NOTATION MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .

] MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN ..VARIOUS TYPES OF DIODES [(a) Courtesy of Motorola Inc. (b) and (c) Courtesy International Rectifier Corporation.

END OF CHAPTER 1 THANK YOU MDM KASUMAWATI BT LIAS DR THELAHA BIN MASRI DR WAN AZLAN BIN WAN ZAINAL ABIDIN .