a device that converts a primary form of energy into a corresponding signal with a different energy form
x Primary Energy Forms: mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, optical, chemical, etc.

take form of a sensor or an actuator

Sensor (e.g., thermometer)
a device that detects/measures a signal or stimulus acquires information from the ´real worldµ


Actuator (e.g., heater)
a device that generates a signal or stimulus


real world

sensor actuator

intelligent feedback system

Basic Requirements: Ruggedness y Linearity y Repeatability y High output signal quality y High reliability and stability y Good dynamic response y No hysteresis y .

CLASSIFICATION y The tansducer may be classified in various ways: Methods of applications y Methods of energy conversion y Nature of output signals y .

Eg: thermistor y Secondary transducer: When the input signal is sensed first by some detecter or sensor and then its output is given as input to transducer for conversion to electrical form. Eg: LVDT y .Methods of application Primary transducer: when the input signal is directly sensed by the transducer and physical form is directly converted to electrical forms.

e.: thermocouples y Passive transducer: These require external power source for energy conversion. E. E.g. inductive and capacitive transducer y .: Resistive.g.Methods of energy conversion Active transducer: Self generating type transducer i. transducer which develop their output in the form of electrical voltage without any source.

NATURE OF O/P SIGNAL Analog transducer: converts input signal into output which is a continuous function of time. y Digital transducer: converts input signal into output which is of the form of pulses y . eg: LVDT. thermocouple.

Eg: piezoelectric crystal y . y An inverse transducer is a device that converts an electrical quantity into non electrical quantity.Transducer v/s Inverse transducer Transducer is a device that converts a non-electrical quantity into electrical quantity.

Selection of transducer Range y Sensitivity y Electrical output characteristics y Physical environment y Errors y .

Types of Transducers y y y y y y y y Variable-Resistance transducer Photovoltaic Transducer Differential Transducer Capacitive Transducer Hall-Effect Transducer Piezoelectric Transducer Photoelectric Transducer Photoconductive transducer .

VariableVariable-Resistance Transducer .

though y y . graphite) y Fairly cheap ² some can be expensive.g.VariableVariable-Resistance Transducer Resistance Potentiometer. rheostat Converts linear or angular displacement into an electric signal y Can be used to convert force and pressure to a displacement through mechanical methods y Moving contact on a slide-wire or moving contact that moves through an angular displacement on a solid conductor (e.

Differential Transformer (LVDT) .

Most differential transformers are only operated in this linear range.Differential Transformer (LVDT) y y y y y y Converts displacement into electric signal Three coils placed in a linear relationship with a magnetic core free to move inside the coils Alternating input voltage impressed in center coil. and output voltage from two end coils depends on magnetic coupling between the core and coils The coupling is dependent on the position of the core If the core remains near the center of the coils the output is very nearly linear. and these are called linear variable differential transducers (LVDT) .

LVDT Continued .

Capacitive Transducer .

A y Measures capacitance change in dielectric constant.Capacitive Transducer Measures a change in capacitance through a change in distance between 2 plates. d y Measures capacitance change through a change in overlapping area. y .

For liquid level measurements two electrodes are placed in the liquid. and the dielectric constant varies between them according to the liquid level y Thus.Capacitive Transducer cont. capacitance between electrodes is a direct indication of liquid level y .

Piezoelectric Transducer .

Piezoelectric Transducer A force applied to a piezoelectric crystal between two electrodes produces a stress and corresponding deformation in the crystal. y Deformation produces potential difference at crystal surface y The stress on the crystal produces an output voltage. y Piezoelectric crystals used as pressure transducers for dynamic measurements y .

Piezoelectric effect .

Photoelectric Transducer .

Photoelectric Transducer y y y y y Converts a light beam into a usable electric signal Light strikes cathode and releases electrons Electrons are attracted toward anode. thereby producing an electric current in external circuit Cathode and anode enclosed in glass or quartz. which is evacuated or filled with inert gas Photoelectric tubes useful for measuring light intensity .

Photoelectric effect .

Photoconductive Transducers .

Photoconductive Transducers Voltage impressed on semiconductor material y Light strikes semiconductor material and a decrease in resistance occurs. thereby producing an increase in current y Useful for measurement of radiation at all wavelengths y .

Photovoltaic Transducers .

Photovoltaic Transducers Sandwich design of a metal base plate and a thin transparent metallic layer with a semiconductor material in between y Light strikes barrier between transparent metal layer and semiconductor material. and a voltage is generated y Most widely used application of photovoltaic cell is the light exposure meter in photographic work y .

HallHall-Effect Transducers .

y When a magnetic field is impressed on a plate in a direction perpendicular to the plate surface. a voltage is generated y This voltage is the Hall voltage y .HallHall-Effect Transducers An external current passes through a semiconductor plate.


THERMOCOUPLE A device consisting of two different conductors that produce a voltage proportional to a temperature difference between either end of the pair of conductors. y . y Seebeck effect: When any conductor is subjected to a thermal gradient. it will generate a voltage.


The hotter they become.RTD Resistance Temperature Detectors or RTDs for short. y . are wire wound and thin film devices that measure temperature y Principle of the positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance of metals. the larger or higher the value of their electrical resistance.

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