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ROTATING EQUIPMENT

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PUMPS

Pumps classification Positive displacement pumps Centrifugal pumps performance Pumps in operation

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PUMPS CLASSIFICATION

Volumetric (Positive Displacement)


- Low/moderate capacity & high differential head - Either reciprocating or rotary. - Reciprocating pumps include piston, plunger, and

diaphragm types. (Chemical lnj : TEG Circulation, ...) - Piston plunger may be single or double acting (Simplex, Duplex, Triplex).
- Rotating (Lube oil, Viscous fluids, ...)

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PUMPS CLASSIFICATION

- Rotating depends on the close clearance between both rotating and stationary surfaces to seal the discharge from the suction.

- Diaphragm pumps
deliver a small, precisely controlled amount of liquid at a moderate to very high discharge pressure. Used as chemical injection pumps because of wide range of materials in which they can be fabricated, and their inherent leakproof design.

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DIAPHRAGM PUMP

Applications: Metering pumps

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CENTRIFUGAL: END SUCTION PUMP

Applications: Reflux, circulation, booster, boiler feed

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GEAR PUMPS

Applications: Diesel oil transfer and lube oil distribution

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SCREW PUMPS

Applications: Slop oil, viscous fluids


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HORIZONTAL IN-LINE PUMPS

Applications:Reflux, circulation, booster, boiler feed

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MULTISTAGE

Applications: seawater injection, condensate injection, pipeline transfer, HP Amine


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MULTISTAGE

SHAFT

impellers

Casing

HP Amine pump in South Pars Acid Gas Removal unit


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VERTICAL IN - LINE PUMP

Applications: Reflux, circulation, booster, boiler feed

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HEAVY PROCESS - PUMP -

Applications: crude oil lift, transfer and/or boosting

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VERTICAL BARREL OR CANNED PUMP

Applications: Loading, transfer, pipeline booster, boiler feed


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Volumetric pumps

Dynamic (Variable Head)


- Centrifugal (General Process, Liquid Exports, ...) - Axial (Very high flowrate : Cooling water, ...)

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Volumetric pumps

Advantages of centrifugal pumps:


less costly, require less maintenance, less space deliver an uniform (non-pulsating) flow. Due to their high reliability and inherent flexibility over a wide range of operational cases, plus the wide range of pumps available covering very different performance requirements, the centrifugal pump (in some cases the axial pump) is the pump most frequently used in the petroleum industry.
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PUMPS

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Centrifugal pumps

Horizontal vs vertical pumps Vertical pumps :


- more compact - often used for liquids at their bubble-point temperature (The vertical distance from the suction flange down to the inlet of the first stage impeller provides additional NPSHA).

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DETERMINATION OF PUMPING CHARACTERISTICS

Characteristics of the liquid Pumping characteristics Mechanical characteristics

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Characteristics of the liquid

Nature (hydrocarbons, water,...), Corrosive elements presents in the liquid (H2S, salts...), Erosive elements presents in the liquid (solids and sludges) Pumping temperature, Density or relative density at pumping temperature, Vapour pressure at pumping temperature, Minimum and maximum operating gas pressure above liquid level in suction vessel, Maximum operating gas pressure above liquid level in discharge vessel.

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Pumping characteristics

Normal flowrate (volume of fluid actually delivered per unit of time at the stated operating conditions indicated in the material balance established for the nominal operating conditions). Rated capacity or design flowrate (maximum flowrate required to take in account the variations of operating conditions to adapt the installation to the new field yields). Rated capacity is equal to the normal flowrate increased by the overcapacity factor or pump design factor. Maximum discharge pressure required at rated capacity. Minimum suction pressure available at rated capacity. Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHA) at rated capacity. Determined by No of pumps operated simultaneously.

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Mechanical characteristics

Type of pump desired if there is a preference (for spare parts standardisation for instance) centrifugal, Triplex, etc..., horizontal, vertical in-line, etc... Flange ratings, flange type if other than standard, Mechanical seal required, Preferred metallurgy of major parts, Type of driver.

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Mechanical characteristics
Type of driver.
- Most are electrical motors (usually fixed speed induction motor) - Nameplate rating
125% rated power if <22 KW 115% if >22 KW and <55 KW 110% if > 55KW

Material
- Usually cast-steel cases and cast iron internals (API 610)

Seals (API-682)
- Consists of stationary and rotating face - Requires cooling and lubrification

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LIQUID HYDRAULIC PATH IN A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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PRESSURE VELOCITY EVOLUTION IN A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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CALCULATION OF PUMP CHARACTERISTICS

Need detailed isometric flow diagram to determine :


the straight length and the diameter and the thickness of the different suction and discharge pipe sections, the manifold characteristics and the number of piping components with their main characteristics (bends, valves, tees,...), the process equipment (heat exchanger, heater,...) the liquid suction static head between the low liquid level in the suction vessel and the centerline of the pump suction flange, the liquid discharge static head between the higher point reached by the liquid in the discharge line or in the discharge vessel and the centerline of the pump discharge flange.

If the isometric flow is not available, the process engineer must establish a simplified flow diagram to show and estimate all characteristics indicated here above, in particular the suction and discharge line profile .

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CALCULATION OF PUMP CHARACTERISTICS

RATED CAPACITY It is equal to the normal flowrate corresponding to the nominal operating conditions increased by the overcapacity factor (or pump design factor). Overcapacity factor (or pump design factor) recommended :
10 % volume for feed pumps and pumps transferring fluids between column or drums, 20 % volume for reflux pumps and circulating pump around circuits, 20 % volume for boiler feed water pumps.

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DIFFERENTIAL HEAD

Pressure Head difference : the difference in static pressure between the starting point and the finishing point of the system. Static Head difference : the difference in levels between the starting point of the system. Frictional Resistance : the head due to the resistance to flow as the liquid moves through the system.

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STEPS FOR ESTIMATING PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL

Calculate system resistance (Conservatism : high static level and pressure differential, and the highest expected pipe friction). Calculate system resistance (best case : low of static level and pressure differential and the lowest pipe). Plot these curves as the extremes expected from the behaviour of the system. Select pumping equipment that successfully meets all reasonably expected operating conditions.

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SYSTEM RESISTANCE CURVE

DIFFERENTIAL HEAD (Pr - Pa) Hmt = ---------------------- + (Zr - Za) + Hfa + Hfr

V@ P,T
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DIFFERENTIAL HEAD

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RELATIONSHIP HEAD - FLOW

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PUMP AND SYSTEM CURVE

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POWER

Q v ( Pd max  Ps min ) Pw ! 36.L p


Pw ! Q v ( Pd max  Ps min ) 36.L p

pw Q PdMax Psmin Lp

= brake pumping power, kW, = rated capacity or design liquid flowrate, m3/h, = maximum discharge pressure at centerline of pump discharge flange, (bar abs), = minimum suction pressure at the centerline of the pump suction flange, (bar abs), = pump efficiency

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ESTIMATION OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS EFFICIENCY

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RELATIONSHIP POWER - FLOW

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CAVITATION / NPSH Net Positive Suction Head

Formation and collapse of vapour cavities in a flowing liquid. Local pressure is reduced to that of the liquid vapour pressure at the temperature of the flowing liquid. At these locations, some of the liquid vaporises to form bubbles or cavities of vapour system. Collapse of bubbles begin when local pressure is higher than the vapour pressure. Result in Noise, severe pitting, and erosion of the impeller often results.

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THE EFFECT OF VAPORIZATION ON THE HEAD-FLOW CURVE

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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REAL AND APPARENT CAVITATION

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CAVITATION / NPSH Net Positive Suction Head

NPSH definition:
- Total inlet pressure, in meters or feet of liquid pumped determined at the pump suction connection (i.e. suction flange), minus the vapour pressure of the liquid pumped in meters or feet of liquid pumped at pumping temperature.

Two NPSH definitions are used in pumping systems :


- Net Positive Suction Head available (NPSHA), - Net Positive Suction Head required (NPSHR).

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CAVITATION / NPSH Net Positive Suction Head

Net Positive Suction Head available (NPSHA)


- Determine by pump purchaser

Net Positive Suction Head required (NPSHR).


- Function of physical dimensions of casing, speed and type of impeller. - Increases as the pump speed increases. - For this reason many critical suction condition installations use relatively slow speed pumps.

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NPSH available
Po + -------- 2 -------Co - PVt NPRHA = -----V 2g V (Pa - PVt) NPRHA = ----------------------------- + Za - Hfa

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NPRHA = NPRHR + 1 m Where: Po = Dynamic press. at pump inlet Co = Fluid velocity at pump inlet P1 = Minimum pressure in pump Pa = Pressure in upstream vessel (bar) PVt = Vapor pressure of fluid @ T (bar) V = density G = gravity constant Za = Liquid level in upstream vessel (m) Hfa = Suction pressure losses (m) P, T = Pumping conditions

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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NPSH absolute AND NPSHR MEASURED USING AERATED WATER

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CAVITATION / NPSH Net Positive Suction Head

Ways of increasing NPSHA:


Reduce the pressure drop in the pump suction piping by increase of the line diameters and the decrease of the number of pipe components (bends,...). Increase the liquid suction static head by elevation of the suction vessel level of by lowering the pumping station grade level. Reduce the vapour pressure value of the pumped liquid with the use of a cooler installed on the pump suction piping (this solution is not often feasible). Locate pump as close as possible to suction vessel. Select a draw-off location on the suction vessel where the least opportunity for vapour entertainment exists, and provide a vortex breaker within the suction vessel. Avoid potential air or vapors traps ; eg : use flat-top reduces, avoid inverted loops, etc Arrange suction piping to slope continuously downward, avoiding any high points (minimum slope : 2 %).

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Centrifugal pump with inducer

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TYPICAL CENTRIFUGAL PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVES

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Performance correction chart for viscous flow

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AFFINITY LAWS

Change of speed from N1 to N2 New Flowrate

Change of diameter from D1 to D2

N2 Q 2 ! Q1 v N1
N2 H 2 ! H1v N1
N2 P 2 ! P1 v N1
2

D2 Q 2 ! Q1 v D1
D2 H 2 ! H 1v D1
2

New Head

New Power

D2 P 2 ! P1 v D1

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MINIMUM FLOW
If discharge is shut-off, all energy converted to heat Liquid heats up rapidly and eventually vaporises Can result in catastrophic failures
- Pump vendor shall specify minimum flow requirements to ensure adequate flow

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FLOW CONTROL
Throttling control
- By throttling valve in discharge piping. - Consumes energy since it artificially increases the system resistance to flow .

Speed control
- Not frequently done because most pumps are driven by fixed - speed motors. - Adjusting the rotational speed often consume substantially less energy. - Used for large, powerful pumps, because it allows to follow as closely as possible the area of highest pump efficiency. - An hydraulic coupling variable speed driver is used with a constant speed electric motor, - For large units gas and steam turbines are ideally suited as variable speed pump drivers.
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HEAD-CAPACITY AND PIPING SYSTEM RESISTANCE CURVE

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FLOW CONTROL BY VARYING PUMP SPEED

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FLOW CONTROL
Recirculation control
- Used more frequently for positive displacement pumps - Caution for centrifugal pumps, because a wide-open bypass may result in a head so low that the pumped fluid will be circulated back to the suction at an extremely high rate, causing high power consumption, increase in fluid temperature, and possibly cavitation, as well as possible overloading the driver. - For many types of centrifugal pumps manufacturers stipulate minimum flow requirements to prevent pump damages. It is recommended to circulate the pumped fluid not back to the suction pump but back to the suction vessel

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LOW FLOW RECIRCULATION BY FIC

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LOW FLOW RECIRCULATION BY OUTLET CHECK VALVE

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PARALLEL SERVICE
Pumps may be designed for parallel operation for any of the following typical reasons : Capacity increase for an existing pumping service. Due to the existing discharge system characteristic, the flow will not necessarily increase in proportion to the number of pumps added. Very high reliability is required without total reliance on the functioning of an autostart mechanism. Required capacity exceed capacity of any pump or driver model. Required capacity exceed the utility energy supply available for a single driver or driver type. Use of multiple pumps may allow investment savings, i.e. for high capacity services three 50 % sized pumps may require lower total investment than two 100 % sized pumps. To meet a requirement for flow capacity higher than normal on an infrequent basis, it may be preferable to have a service pump and its spare operate in parallel, rather than design each for the full over-normal flow rate. To increase plant safety and (or) reliability.
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PUMPS IN PARALLEL SERVICE


WHEN HALF CAPACITY PUMPS ARE IN PARALLEL SERVICE

QR1 = Rated capacity of each half capcity s pump Qmax1 = Maximum capacity of single pump Qmax2 = Maximum operating flow obtained by two half capacity pumps in service
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SERIES SERVICE
When? Unusually high NPSHR, i.e. operating at a high differential head - design flow point requires a "booster" pump to pressure the suction of the high pressure pump. Head requirement exceeds the capability of a single pump and the flowrate is beyond the economic reciprocating pump range. The differential pressure requirement is low enough at times that one of several pumps in series can be turned off, as in transportation pipelines.

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PUMPS IN SERIES OPERATION

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Multiphase Production
Before
When the development a marginal field or a group of remote wells is considered together with an existing central gathering system the traditional options for field development were: natural flow, artificial lift, In-field separation with crude oil pumps and gas compression systems

Multiphase pumping offers a fourth solution:


Imparts energy to the unprocessed effluent enabling liquid/gas mixture to be transported over long distances without the need for prior separation. . Interest for multiphase production, which leads to simpler and smaller in-field installations, is primarily dictated by the need for more a cost effective production system Capable of handling liquid/vapor fraction ranging from 0% to 100%

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Multiphase pumps

The standardized Sulzer MPP pump range incorporates the latest 2nd generation helicoaxial Poseidon developed by IFP for the poseidon group (IFP, Total and Statoil) and subsequently licensed to Sulzer pumps.

The MPP pump is a multi-stage pump with each stage or compression cell comprising a rotating helico-axial flow impeller and a stationary diffuser.

The poseidon hydraulic design ensures that th epump can handle any void fractions without phase separation occcuring whilst also being very tolerant of sand particles.

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Multiphase pumps
Advanced hydraulic design allied to simple modular concept Duplex metallurgy for corrosion resistance and H2S service Flow homogenizer for smoother mechanical running when sudden transient phenomena such as severe slugging are likely to occur Hydraulic flexibility and wide range of duties Easily retrofitted to take account of changing reservoir characteristics during the production life of the field

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NAUTILUS PROJECT

Nautilus is a subsea 1.3 MW electrically driven multiphase booster station. The development of this project is being led by TOTAL with Sulzer having overall responsibility for thepump/motor unit. Nautilus has been designed for installation up to about 60 km (37 miles) from the receiving platform which is therefore expected to improve significantly the economic viability of subsea satellite or remote fields.

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INSTALLATION FACILITIES

Temporary strainers Used for the protection during the initial operating period of new plants to collect weld beads, pipe scale, and any other foreign matter Permanent strainers Used where solids or foreign matter are a normal constituent of the pump fluid. cleaned when pressure drop reaches maximum allowable limit.
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INSTALLATION FACILITIES

Reciprocating pump pulsation dampeners

Pressure pulsations can lead to pipe failure Pulses reduced by:


Using a multiple cylinder pump such as duplex or triplex, by installing bladder-type accumulators (pulsation dampeners) in the pump discharge lines, or by a change of driver speed.

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INSTALLATION FACILITIES

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OPERATION

Typical starting sequence


- Ensure all valves in auxillary sealing, cooling and flushing are open and that systems are functioning properly. - Close discharge valve - Open suction valve - Vent gas from pump and associated piping - Energize driver - Open discharge valve slowly - On large, multistage pumps, flow is established in a matter of seconds thanks to the minimum flow recirculation

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