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Some Basics Concepts of TPS • Smooth Flow and Produce to Takt Time • Produce to Order • Make system “observable” and correct problems as they occur • Integrate Worker Skills • Institutionalize change .
• Product demand includes over production for low yields etc. clean-up etc). . lunch. year etc.g. and excludes all nonproductive time (e.• • • • Takt Time: demand time interval Takt Time = Available Time / Product Demand Calculate Takt Time per month. day. Available time includes all shifts.
Takt Time • Automobile Assembly Line.5 hr X 3 • shifts = 22.5 hrs or 1350 minutes per day. • 2 shifts X 7 hrs => 14 hrs/day X 250 day/year = 3500hrs. Demand = • 1600 cars per day. 500 engines per year. • Takt time = 7 hrs. . Takt Time = 51 sec • Aircraft Engine Assembly Line. Available time = 7.
large inventories and a sluggish system. emphasis on smooth flow. cooperative problem solving. Pull system characteristics: Local decision making. local optimization of equipment utilization leads to large batches. .Comparison between Push and Pull Systems • • • • • • • • Push system characteristics: Central decision making.
• • • • • • • • So what are the advantages of the pull systems? • quick response • low inventories • observable problems (if stopped = problem) • sensitive to state of the factory (if no part = problem) • possible cooperative problem solving .
under the guidance of a teacher. The pathway for every product and service must be simple and direct. and outcome. and there must be an unambiguous yes-or-no way to send requests and receive responses.• According to Spear and Bowen’s research. • 2. • 4. timing. All work shall be highly specified as to content. • 3. Any improvement must be made in accordance with the scientific method. at the lowest possible level in the organization . Every customer-supplier connection must be direct. four basic rules capture the tacit knowledge that underlies the Toyota Production System: • 1.
practitioners of TPS understand directionally that performance of the system will improve if the system is moving toward continuous flow by eliminating waste. particularly competing with Henry Ford. Through years of trial and error on the shopfloor Toyota discovered that they could simultaneously achieve high quality. The theoretical ideal is continuous one-by-one piece flow. and just-intime delivery by “shortening the production flow by eliminating waste.” This simple concept is at the heart of the TPS and what distinguishes it from the older mass production paradigm it supplants. While this ideal is rarely realized. The focus is always on shortening the production flow and waste is anything that gets in the way of a smooth flow.• • • • • • • • • • • The Toyota Production System (TPS) was developed to become competitive on world markets. low cost. . while addressing the particular circumstances Toyota faced in Japan.