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M.A. (Clin.Psych.)(UCT)


Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2007). Organizational Behavior (12th Ed.). Prentice Hall: New Jersey. Chapter 1 Reserved copies under Psych 304 Notes

What Managers Do

Make decisions, allocate resources & direct activities of others to attain goals Work in an organization

Consciously coordinated social unit, composed of 2 or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals

Management Functions

Planning: defining organizational goals & establishing strategy for achieving them Organizing: design organizations structure Leading: direct and coordinate employees Controlling: ensure things are going as they should

Management Roles

Henry Mintzbergs (1960) study

Interpersonal Informational Decisional

Exhibit 1-1 (pp-6)

Management Skills

Robert Katz- 3 essential management skills

Technical Skills: ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise Human Skills: work with, understand, motivate employees Conceptual Skills: mental ability to analyze & diagnose complex situations

Organizational Behaviour (OB)

Studies 3 determinants of behaviour in org. (individuals, groups & structure)

Apply this knowledge to improve orgs effectiveness

The study of what people do in an organization & how their behaviour affects the organizations performance

Contributing Disciplines to OB field

Psychology: seeks to measure, explain & sometimes change behaviour

Learning & personality theorists, counselling, Ind/Org Psych

Social psychology: peoples influence on one another

Attitudes, communication patterns, group behaviour & conflict


Contributing Disciplines to OB field (cont)

Sociology: people in relation to their social environment & culture

Group behaviour in organizations

Anthropology: study societies to learn about human beings & their activities

Differences in values, attitudes & behaviour btwn people in diff. countries & within diff. org.

Challenges & Opportunities for OB

Responding to Globalization:

Org. no longer constrained by national borders Workforce is likely to be different

Increased Foreign Assignments

Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labour

Economic values arent universally transferable


Coping with anticapitalism backlash

Compete against cheap labour Criticism from labour groups, politicians

Managing people during the war on terror

business travellers cut on their trips Heterogeneous mix- gender, age, race, sexual orientation

Managing workforce diversity

Working with people from different cultures Embracing diversity

Diverse cultural values, lifestyle preferences Orgs. need to be accommodating



Improving quality & productivity

Industries suffer from excess supply Translates into increased competition Decline interest by older workers to stay in workforce Need for sophisticated recruitment & retention strategies

Responding to labour shortage

Improving customer service

Need for interaction with customers ? Please customers

Improving people skills Empowering people

Decision making flexibility


Stimulating innovation & change

Coping with temporaries

Jobs are being subcontracted out Job security? Networked organization Gone are 8am to 4pm shifts Creates personal conflicts & stress

Working in networked organizations

Helping people balance work & life

Improving ethical behaviour

Pressure on productivity & tough competition

Break rules Ethical dilemmas Codes of ethics Workshops/seminars to improve ethical behaviour


Coming Attractions: Developing an OB model

A model is an abstraction of reality

A simplified representation of some real world phenomenon 3 levels of analysis in OB

Individual Group Organizational system


The Dependent Variables

A dependent variable: key factor to be explained or predicted & is affected by some other factors

Productivity: transferring inputs to outputs at lowest cost

? Concern re: effectiveness & efficiency

Absenteeism: failure to report to work

Cost implications, delays decision Are all absences bad?


Turnover: voluntary/involuntary withdrawal from an organization

Increased recruiting, selection & training costs Can be positive Voluntarily violating organizational norms Understand why?

Deviant workplace behaviour


Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB)

Behaviour not part of formal job requirement, but promotes effective functioning of the org.

Job satisfaction: positive feeling about ones job

Affects productivity Jobs must be intrinsically challenging & rewarding


The Independent Variables

An independent variable cause some change in/on/to the dependent variable

Individual-level variables: individual characteristics that will influence behaviour at work

Age, gender, marital status, values, attitudes, perception, decision making, learning, motivation


Group-level variables: more than the sum total of all individuals acting on their own way

People behave differently in groups Understand group influence on individuals Degree to which group members are attracted to each other


Organizational systems level variables:

The design of the formal organization Organizations internal culture Human resource policies & practices