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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability

6s

DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA

FLOWDOWN
M E A S U R E
Customer Needs

FLOW-UP

EXAMPLE
I want the right trucks at the right place at the right time

6s

Quality Deployment

Quality Deployment
CTQs: Quality Cost Delivery 0 Defects $1000/Order 30 Days

Product/Service CTQs Functional Analysis

A N A L Y Z E

ORDER Evaluate High-Level Design Capability


Functional Requirements: Quality 0 Defects Cost $200/Order Delivery 1 Day

BUILD

DELIVER Level 1 Process

Functional Requirements

Concept Development High-Level Design

CUSTOMER ORDER

APPROVE

OEM ORDER

Level 2 Process

Design Requirements

D E S I G N V E R I F Y

Detailed Design
Evaluate Detailed Design Capability

Design Requirements: Quality Correct Translation Cost $100/Order Delivery 3 Hrs

Process Variables Specification

DEVELOP SPECS

REVIEW

TRANSMIT ORDER Level 3 Microprocess

Pilot Build & Test


Variables Specification: Quality All Spec Fields Complete Cost $50/Order Delivery 20 Minutes

Pilot Results

Requirements Flowdown And Capability Flow-Up

Production Build & Test

Performance Results

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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Tools To Predict/Improve Design Capability

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Activity Network Diagram (AND)/Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Chart To Predict Critical Path/Cycle Time Failure Modes And Effects Analysis (FMEA)/Error Modes And Effects Analysis (EMEA)/Errorproofing To Predict, Prevent And/Or Mitigate Potential Failures/Errors Capacity Planning To Predict Resource Requirements, Waits, Delays, Queues Cost/Profit Analysis To Predict Cost/Profit Of Product/Service

Simulation Software Predicts Product/Service Performance, Includes Variability Of Inputs/CTPs


Design Scorecards Provide Focus And Accounting Method For Overall Capability Prediction
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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Crystal Ball

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Crystal Ball Microsoft Excel Add-On Package That Performs Monte Carlo Simulation Useful For Static Simulation Efforts (No Queuing, Bottlenecks) Propagates Variability Of Inputs To Predict Variability Of Output(s) Applications Include: Profit/Loss Predictions Net Annual Worth Equipment Performance/Life

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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Crystal Ball Example The Problem

6s

GE Capital Aircraft Leasing* Is Considering An Investment In A New Type Of Light Aircraft The Team Responsible For The Recommendation Wishes To Evaluate The Potential Profitability Of The Aircraft, But There Is Uncertainty Around The Inputs

* Not a real example


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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Crystal Ball Example The Approach

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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Crystal Ball Example The Solution

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Crystal Ball Menu


Assign distributions to cells (Generally done with Xs)
Highlight cells with distributions Start Stop Reset Single Step Copy, Paste, and Clear Distributions Trend Chart Will trend across Forecasts

6s
Summary Reports shows assumptions and results

Sensitivity Analysis: good for tolerancing

Highlight cells with forecasts Run Preferences (Iterations, Sensitivity, etc.) Assign cells to be forecasted (Generally for the Ys) Overlay Chart Can add distribution to histogram or compare results between forecasts

Forecast Windows what you see as the result


Output results to new sheet HELP !

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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Design Scorecards Continued Application
Design

6s

Product Process Information Human Facility Equipment Materials

Design Scorecard
Step CTQ USL LSL X S DPMO DPU Step Sigma ~~~

Predicted
Process Sigma

~~~

~~~

~~

~~

~~

~~

~~

~~

Capability Data

Data Warehouse Simulation Calculation Delphi Benchmarking

Redesign

No

OK
Yes
Verify Step

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Design Scorecards
Design Scorecards For Small Business Loan Service (continued)
The Performance Scorecard
CTQ Measure

6s

Characteristic

LSL

USL

Mean

Std. Dev.

Short or Long Term L L L L

Discrete DPU

DPU

Reqd Loan Amount Approved Interest Rate Loan Appl. Time Knowledgeable Reps Availability of Reps Initial/Addl Info. Requests Reps Demeanor Variety of Loan Types Information Accuracy

Loan Ratio Int. Rate Cycle Time Test Scores Answer Time BPM Indicator BPM Indicator BPM Indicator Individual

95% Prime 85%

100% Pr. + 2% 7 Days

98% Pr. + 1.5% 5 Days 90%

0.2% 0.2% 1 Day 2%

0.0 0.0062 0.023 0.0062

Short Term Sigma (ZST) Large 4.0 3.5 4.0

See Process

Total Opportunities Service DPU Service DPMO Service ZST

4 0.0354 8,850 3.9

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Design Scorecards
Completing the Performance Scorecard

6s

General The Performance Scorecard should be completed for the overall services or for each functions CTQs (functional requirements). Its purpose is to estimate defects that result from a lack of Design Margin and the stack-up of variation in processes that are required to perform the service. Effects of queuing should be included in estimating continuous CTQs such as time and cost. This may require performing a simulation study of the process under design. (Note: the first four columns constitute the components of the services CTQs)

Characteristic List the important characteristics of the function related to customer needs. These are generally developed via the second House of Quality (CTQs deployed to functions to identify functional requirements.
Measure List the characteristics associated measures or other method of quantification. LSL, USL For each continuous requirement (i.e., cost, time), list the upper and lower specification limits. A requirement may have both an upper and lower specification limit or only one specification. Discrete requirements will be evaluated in the Discrete DPU column below. Mean, Std. Dev. Estimate the mean and standard deviation of the characteristics measure. This may be based on historical data from similar services, estimated from a simulation of the process (e.g., some form of simulation, computer-based, or a process mock-up), or a Delphi method . Short- or Long-Term Indicate if the mean and standard deviation estimate is based on Short- or Long-Term data. The default is Long-Term. Discrete DPU Estimate the defects per service unit associated with discrete characteristics (for characteristics where either the discrete is present or not, or where the number of defects per area of opportunity can be assessed). This column may also be employed to estimate the DPU associated with characteristics whose distributions are non-normal. DPU For continuous data, this is the percent of area under the long term distribution outside of the specification limits (with sLT = 1.3sST). For discrete data, this is the Discrete DPU. Short-Term Sigma (ZST) The short-term sigma (shift = 1.5) corresponding to the CTQs DPU on a one-tailed distribution. Total Opportunities This is the number of lines completed on the scorecard. Function DPU This is the sum of all DPUs. Function DPMO This equals the Function DPU/Total Opportunities x 106. Function ZST This equals the short-term Sigma (shift = 1.5) corresponding to the above Function DPMO on a one-tailed distribution.
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Design Scorecards
Design Scorecards For Small Business Loan Service
Internal Process Scorecard Loan Application Function
Process/Step Process CTQ/Design Requirement Understand Customers Loan Needs Appropriate Options Described Knowldgble Reps Cycle Time Correct Information Obtained Availability Reps Friendly Demeanor of 30 min 21 min. 3 min. L 7,000 LSL USL Mean Std. Dev. Short or Long Term DPMO # Times Applied

6s
DPU Short Term Sigma (ZST) 3.2

Discuss Needs

50,000

0.05

Describe Options

100,000

0.1

2.8

10,000

0.01

3.8

Take Application

1 1 20

0.0014 0.14

4.5 4.0

General (all steps)

5 Second Answer

3 Sec.

1 Sec.

L 5,000

1 1

0.023 0.005

3.5 4.1

Total Opportunities Function DPU Function DPMO Function ZST Notes: 1. 20 Data Elements Requested for Loan Application.
GE Confidential

25 0.33 13,176 3.7

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Design Scorecards
Completing the Internal Process Scorecard

6s

General The Process Scorecard (Internal) is be completed for process steps to be performed by the GECS organization designing/redesigning the service. Functions/processes performed by other GECS organizations or external suppliers to the process should be documented on the Supplier Process Scorecard. This helps the team distinguish between internal and external performance issues affecting their design. DMADV encourages the identification of the overall functions that are required for the service to be provided (Analyze Step). The team may find it useful to develop a process scorecard for each function being designed (i.e., sales, claims processing, vehicle order processing, etc.) Process/Step List the processes or steps associated with each function in this column. Process CTQ/Design Requirement List the requirements associated with the process/step. For example, for a claims processing function, the Generate Check process will have accuracy, timeliness and cost requirements. LSL, USL For each continuous requirement (i.e., cost, time), list the upper and lower specification limits. A requirement may have both an upper and lower specification limit or only one specification. Discrete requirements will be evaluated in the DPMO column below. Mean, Std. Dev. Estimate the mean and standard deviation of the process/step. This may be based on historical data from similar processes, estimated from a simulation of the process (e.g., some form of simulation, computer-based, or a process mock-up), or a Delphi method.

Short- or Long-Term Indicate if the mean and standard deviation estimate is based on Short- or Long-Term data. The default is Long-Term.
DPMO For discrete requirements, estimate the DPMO. The estimate may be based on historical data, process simulation or the Delphi method. # Times Applied If the process is used more than once to complete the function (i.e., in generating a letter, the Save process may be employed more than once), list this number. DPU For continuous data, this is the percent of area under the long-term distribution outside of the specification limits multiplied by the number of times the process is applied (with sLT = 1.3sST). For discrete data, this is the DPMO times the number of times applied divided by 106. Short-Term Sigma (ZST) The short-term sigma (shift = 1.5) corresponding to the process DPO (DPMO x 106) on a one-tailed distribution. Total Opportunities This is the total of the Number of Times Applied Column. Function DPU This is the sum of all DPUs. Function DPMO This equals the Function DPU/Total Opportunities x 106. Function ZST This equals the short-term Sigma (shift = 1.5) corresponding to the above Function DPMO on a one-tailed distribution.
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Design Scorecards
Design Scorecards For Small Business Loan Service (continued)
Supplier Process Scorecard Process/Step/ Output Process CTQ/Design Requirement LSL USL Mean Std. Dev. Short or Long Term DPMO # Times Applied

6s
DPU Short Term Sigma (ZST) 4.9

Local/Long Distance Telephone Company Service Availability Electric Utility Service

0.0003

Availability

0.0001

5.2

Credit Service Bureau Credit Checks Cycle Time Correct Information Provided Appraisal Service Collateral Check

45 min.

15 min.

10 min. 60,000

1 8

0.0014 0.48

4.5 3.1

Cycle Time Correct Collateral Assessment

480 min.

460 min.

30 min. 80,000

1 6

0.25 0.48

2.2 2.9

Express Mail Service Delivery Service Cycle Time Correct Delivery

24 hrs.

18 hrs.

2 hrs. 1,000

3 3

0.0014 0.003

4.5 4.6

Total Opportunities Function DPU Function DPMO Function ZST


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Design Scorecards
Completing the Supplier Process Scorecard

6s

General The Supplier Process Scorecard should be completed for process steps by other GECS organizations or external suppliers to the process. This will help the team and management clearly distinguish between internal and external performance issues affecting their design. DMADV encourages the identification of the overall functions that are required for the service to be provided (Analyze Step). The team may find it useful to develop a process scorecard for each function being designed (i.e., sales, claims processing, vehicle order processing, etc.) Process/Step/Output List the processes or steps associated with each function in this column. If the supplier provides some tangible product such as claims envelopes, cars or trucks (for leasing to GE customers), list the actual part here. Process CTQ/Design Requirement List the requirements associated with the process/step/output. For example, for a claims processing function, the Generate Check process will have accuracy, timeliness and cost requirements. LSL, USL For each continuous requirement (i.e., cost, time), list the upper and lower specification limits. A requirement may have both an upper and lower specification limit or only one specification. Discrete requirements will be evaluated in the DPMO column below. Mean, Std. Dev. Estimate the mean and standard deviation of the process/step/output. This may be based on historical data from similar processes, a simulation of the process (e.g., computer-based, or a process mock-up), or a Delphi method.

Short- or Long-Term Indicate if the mean and standard deviation estimate is based on Short- or Long-Term data. The default is Long-Term.
DPMO For discrete requirements, estimate the DPMO. The estimate may be based on historical data , process simulation or other method. # Times Applied If the process is used more than once to complete the function (i.e., in generating a letter, the Save process may be employed more than once), list this number. DPU For continuous data, this is the percent of area under the long-term distribution outside of the specification limits multiplied by the number of times the process is applied (with sLT = 1.3sST). For discrete data, this is the DPMO times the number of times applied divided by 106. Short-Term Sigma (ZST) The short-term sigma (shift = 1.5) corresponding to the process DPO (DPMO x 106) on a one-tailed distribution. Total Opportunities This is the total of the Number of Times Applied Column. Function DPU This is the sum of all DPUs. Function DPMO This equals the Function DPU/Total Opportunities x 106. Function ZST This equals the short-term Sigma (shift = 1.5) corresponding to the above Function DPMO on a one-tailed distribution.
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Design Scorecards
Design Scorecards For Small Business Loan Service (continued)
Software Process Scorecard Software Module Loan Data Input Automated Credit Check Collateral Input Loan Data Storage Package Combination Risk Analysis Automatic Approval Committee Review Loan Approval/Denial Loan Package Print Account Data Entry Account Setup Check Print Opportunities 20 Data 6 Data 5 Data 8 R/W 3 Operations 5 Operations 6 Calcs 1 Screen 4 Data 30 Data 10 Data 40 Data 4 Data Short or Long Term L L L L L L L L L L L L L DPMO 100 100 200 300 100 100 200 600 100 200 300 100 100 Total DPU 0.0020 0.0006 0.0010 0.0024 0.0003 0.0005 0.0012 0.0006 0.0004 0.0060 0.0030 0.0040 0.0004 Total Opportunities Function DPU Function DPMO Function ZST

6s
Short Term Sigma (ZST) 5.2 5.2 5.0 4.9 5.2 5.2 5.0 4.7 5.2 5.0 4.9 5.2 5.2 142 0.0224 158 5.1

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Design Scorecards
Completing the Software Scorecard

6s

General The purpose of this scorecard is to estimate software defects in new software at a given phase in the development process based on historical data. This scorecard may be created for each of the services functions, or the entire service. Software Module This is a description of the software module required for the service or function to occur. Opportunities This column is somewhat flexible. Generally, consider the number of opportunities for the software module to create a defect. For example, a print module could lose the entire job, print using the wrong font, send the job to the wrong printer, etc. Short- or Long-Term The default is Long-Term. DPMO Estimate the DPMO for the module at the given point in development. The estimate may be based on historical data or a simulation of the software or the Delphi method. Total DPU For discrete data, this is the DPMO times the number of opportunities divided by 10 6 (shift = 1.5 for short-term data). Short Term Sigma (ZST) The short-term sigma (shift = 1.5) corresponding to the process DPO (DPMO x 10 6) on a one-tailed distribution. Total Opportunities This is the total of the Opportunities Column. Function DPU This is the sum of all module DPUs. Function DPMO This equals the Function DPU/Total Opportunities x 106. Function ZST This equals the short-term Sigma (shift = 1.5) corresponding to the above Function DPMO on a one-tailed distribution.

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Design Scorecards
Design Scorecards For Small Business Loan Service (continued)

6s

The Top Level Scorecard Service Function (Level 1 Process) Performance Overall Software Overall Loan Application Loan Processing Loan Approval Account Setup Telephone Co. Electric Co. Credit Bureau Service Appraisal Service Delivery Service
Total DPU Total Opportunities Short Term Sigma (ZST)

Performance
DPU Opps

Internal Process
DPU Opps

Supplier Process
DPU Opps

Software
DPU Opps

0.0354

4 0.0224 0.33 1.22 0.11 0.354 25 28 6 42 0.0003 0.0001 0.48 0.73 0.0044 1 1 9 7 6 0.0224 142 5.1 3.278 271 3.7 142

0.0354 4 3.9

2.01 101 3.5

1.21 24 1.5
Scorecard DPU Scorecard Opportunities Scorecard ZST

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Design Scorecards
Completing the Top-Level Scorecard

6s

General The top-level scorecard estimates defects expected to be found during the implementation of the service. The four previous scorecards provide input to this top-level scorecard. Service Function (Level 1 Process) List each service function required for the overall service to be provided. Performance List the DPU totals and Total Opportunities from these scorecards. Internal Process List the DPU totals and Total Opportunities from these scorecards. Supplier Process List the DPU totals and Total Opportunities from these scorecards. Software List the DPU totals and Total Opportunities from these scorecards. Total DPU Total the DPUs for each column Total Opportunities Total the Opportunities for each column. Short Term Sigma (ZST) Calculate the short-term column sigma (Shift = 1.5) corresponding to the DPO = Total DPU/Total Opportunities. Scorecard DPU This is the row total of Total DPU. Scorecard Opportunities This is the row total of Total Opportunities. Scorecard ZST This is the short-term sigma (Shift = 1.5) corresponding to the DPO = Scorecard DPU/Scorecard Opportunities. The results of this calculation provide the team with an estimate of the overall service Sigma. This predicted value can be compared to targets; if there is a gap, then the Process (Internal and Supplier), Software and Performance scorecards are analyzed to determine the Pareto of improvement opportunities. The team would then redesign weak areas, recalculate the sigmas and iterate the process until the desired overall service sigma level is achieved.
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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability Design Scorecards - Review Exercise


What can you conclude about this design? What questions would you want to ask?

6s

Top Level Scorecard


Analyst: J.F.W. Supplier Process DPU Opp's Internal Process DPU Opp's Date: Performance DPU Opp's 3.000E-01 1.050E-02 1.900E-02 21 19 1.146E+00 2.000E-04 3.450E-02 2865 2 23 3 9.500E-04 19 17-Sep-98 Software DPU Opp's

Ref. Service Function (Level 1 Process) 1 2 3 4 5 6

Overall Design Application Internal Processing Funds Transfer Sub Process 5 Sub Process 6
Total DPU Total Opportunities ZST 2.950E-02 40 4.68 40 User Inputs 1.181E+00 2890 4.85 2890

3.000E-01 3 2.78 Scorecard DPU Scorecard Opportunities Scorecard ZST

9.500E-04 19 5.39 1.511E+00 2952 4.78


Rev 2.1

19

Dr. Maurice L. Berryman, 1996. All rights reserved. Modified by GECS, March 1998. For GE use only.

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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Questions for Project Teams (examples)

6s

Show me your scorecard. Who is the customer? Describe the CTQ(s) and target/specification values. How do you know they are correct? What is your capability to measure the CTQ(s)? Which sub-processes/components have the most impact on this designs ability to meet the CTQs? How was this determined? What is your plan to improve the overall predicted ZST? What are the main failure modes for this design? How was this determined? Which internal processes are the least capable of delivering 6s defect levels? What is your plan to address them? What percentage of performance CTQs have statistically based flow-downs to the sub-process or component levels? What is the financial benefit of defect avoidance on this project? Which suppliers have the biggest impact on the predicted ZST?

Understand the numbers and what drives them.


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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Failure Modes And Effects Analysis (FMEA) Purpose

6s

To Identify And Prioritize Parts Of The Product Or Process That Need Improvement
To Improve The Quality, Reliability, And Safety Of Products And Services To Increase Customer Satisfaction To Document And Track Actions Taken To Reduce Risk

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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Types Of FMEA
Product Or Service Design FMEA

6s

Uncover Problems That May Result In: Safety Hazards Malfunctions Shortened Product Life Or Decreased Service Satisfaction Ask How Can The Product Or Service Fail

Process FMEA

Uncover Problems That May Result In: Safety Hazards Defects In Product Or Service Production Process Reduced Process Efficiency Ask How Can Materials, Equipment, Methods, And Environment Cause Process Problems

Error Modes And Effects Analysis (EMEA)

Uncover Human Errors That May Result In: Safety Hazards Defects In Product Or Service Decreased Satisfaction

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Ask How Can Occur, Attempt To Prevent Or Mitigate Through Errorproofing


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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


FMEA/EMEA Process
Failure/Error Mode: The How An Item Fails Or Error Is Made Paper Handler Jams Customer Not Invoiced

6s

Failure/Error Cause: Why The Failure Or Error Occurs Actionable Causes Paper Stapled Together Invoice Lost In Mail Paper Misaligned Sales Data Entered Too Late In Billing Cycle Paper Too Thick Data Base Failure Failure/Error Effect: What Happens To The Process When The Failure/Error Mode Occurs? Copying Job Stops Loss Of Revenue Customer Upset When Error Detected Failure/Error Mode Detectability: Can The Failure/Error Be Detected Before Something Bad Occurs? Machine Stops Weekly Reconciliation Of Sales/Accounts Receivable Data Front Display Indicates Jam In Paper Handler
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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Steps For Completing An FMEA/EMEA

6s

1. Determine The FMEA/EMEA Purpose 2. Organize The FMEA/EMEA Effort 3. Review The Product, Service Or Process 4. Determine Item Failure Modes And Process Step Error Modes 5. Determine Effects Of Failure/Error Modes 6. Determine Causes Of Item Failure Modes/Step Error Modes

7. Determine Failure Mode/Error Mode/Cause Detectability


8. Prioritize The Failures/Errors Criticality Analysis And The RPN 9. Carry Out The FMEA Action Feedback Loop

10. Validate The FMEA


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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Calculating Risk Priority Number (RPN)
Bad
10 9 8 7

6s

Severity Scale
Rating Criteria: A Failure Could Injure A Customer Or Employee Be Illegal Render Product Or Service Unfit For Use Cause Extreme Customer Dissatisfaction

6
5 4 3 2 1

Result In Partial Malfunction


Cause A Loss Of Performance Which Is Likely To Result In A Complaint Cause Minor Performance Loss Cause A Minor Nuisance But Can Be Overcome With No Performance Loss Be Unnoticed And Have Only Minor Effect On Performance Be Unnoticed And Not Affect The Performance Rating 10 9 8 7 6 5

Occurrence Scale
Time Period More Than Once Per Day Once Every 3-4 Days Once Per Week Once Per Month Once Every 3 Months Once Every 6 Months Probability 30% 30% 5% 1% .03% 1 Per 10,000

Detection Scale
Rating Definition 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Defect Caused By Failure Is Not Detectable Occasional Units Are Checked For Defect Units Are Systematically Sampled And Inspected All Units Are Manually Inspected Manual Inspection With Mistake-Proofing Modifications Process Is Monitored (SPC) And Manually Inspected SPC Is Used With An Immediate Reaction To Out Of Control Conditions SPC As Above With 100% Inspection Surrounding Out Of Control Conditions All Units Are Automatically Inspected Defect Is Obvious And Can Be Kept From Affecting The Customer

Good

4
3 2 1

Once Per Year


Once Every 1-3 Years Once Every 3-6 Years Once Every 6-100 Years

6 Per 100,000
6 Per Million 3 Per 10 Million 2 Per Billion

RPN = Severity x Occurrence x Detection


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Potential Failure Modes And Effects Analysis Worksheet
Small Business Loan Process/Product: Appeal Process FMEA Team: SBLC Black Belt: C. Zechberg FMEA Process Occurrence Detection Item/ Process Step Requests Infos Potential Failure Mode Misses Required Items (L.O.) Collects Wrong Info (L.O.) Potential Effect(s) Of Failure Incomplete Application Delays Application Errors, Delays Potential Cause(s) Of Failure Distracted, Cant Remember Office Noise, Telephone Connection, Customer Supplied Current Controls Application Review Recommended Action Create Checklist Responsibility And Target Completion Date JL/6/97 Severity RPN FMEA Date: (Original) (Revised) Page: 5/25/97 3 of 5

6s
Action Results Occurrence Detection Severity Action Taken RPN

7 280

10

Application Review

7 350

Use Headphones

HD/6/97

Enters On Computer

Total Risk Priority Number


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Resulting Risk Priority Number GE Confidential

Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


Errorproofing

6s

To Prevent Errors, A Natural Tendency Is To Add Inspection Steps Effectiveness Of Inspection

If Each Inspector Detects 70% Of Errors And Inspectors Are In Series:


Process Error Rate (%) 10% 1% 0.1% 0.01%
* Less Than 3.4 Defects/Million

# Inspectors To Reach 6s* 9 7 5 3

The Alternative To Inspection: Errorproof!


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GSO DFSS - Green Belt Training


FMEA: Identify Problem Areas.
FMEA PROCESS Process Potential Fail Mode Step Potential Effects of Failure SEV. Prevent Errors

6s
Eliminate Possibility Of Error Delegate Necessary Decisions

Errorproofing Principles
Power-off interlocks when copier door is open Child-locks on car doors Program cash register to calculate change Program phone numbers

Match Task To Abilities


Facilitate Tasks Errorproofing

Program VCR to tape show via program code Place similar materials in bins, separate bins Color-code similar parts, wires

Stratify/ Specialize Tasks Distinguish Tasks

Errorproofing: Developing Solutions.


Action Results

Action Taken

Severity

Occurance Detection RPN Detect Errors Mitigate Errors Mitigate Errors

Provide spell checking function in word processor Collision avoidance radar in planes Auto correct feature in word processor

Note: For services, a service recovery action may be planned for errors/defects that reach the customer.
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Errorproofing Strategies

6s

Fail-Safe Design

Sensory Multipliers

Process Simulation/Validation
Countdowns Verifications Cutoffs, Interlocks

Templates, Masks, Checklists


Training, Communication Clarify Multiple Standards Reduce Atmosphere Of Blame

Alarms
Automation, Robots Work Reorganization Job Rotation

Procedure Skull And Crossbones


Involve Workers/Staff In Errorproofing Activities Service Recovery

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Evaluate Detailed Design Capability


FMEA/Errorproofing Team Breakout Exercise

6s

Objective

Explore Potential Problems In Your Process And Identify Potential Improvements Using FMEA/Errorproofing

Instructions

1. Review A Detailed Process Flow Chart Or Component You Created Previously (pg. 40 - Design) 2. Identify One Likely Failure

3. Perform An FMEA Evaluation On This One Item


4. Identify An Errorproofing Strategy To Reduce The RPN Number For This Potential Failure

Time

20 Minutes

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Prepare Control And Verification Plans

6s

DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA

Prepare Control And Verification Plans


The Bridge To Process Management Current State Desired State

6s

Design Integrated And Complete Product/Service Process

Process Up And Running Process Controlled Owners

Information
Human Facilities Equipment Materials

Control Methods
Measurements Improvements Business Results Customer Satisfied And Delighted

Capability Predicted

The Last Step Of Design Builds The Bridge To Operations And Ongoing Improvement
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Process Control System

6s

A System Of Activities Whose Purpose Is To Maintain Process Performance At A Level That Satisfies Customers Needs And Drives The Ongoing Improvement Of Process Performance

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Process Control

6s

Purpose:

Provide Consistent Level Of Service To Customers

Provide Direction For Improvement Activities


Hold The Gains Created By Design And Improvement Activities Break Down Barriers Between Groups

Techniques:

Standardizing Documenting

Monitoring
Response Planning (Service Recovery Planning)
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What Should Be Monitored?

6s

Output Measures Customer Satisfaction CTQs (From Design Scorecards) Volumes (Invoices, Throughput)

Process Measures Upstream Monitoring Points Candidates: Functional Requirements, Design Requirements, Supplier Performance (From Scorecards) Volumes (Throughput, Inventory)

Input Measures

Process Variables (CTPs)


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Prepare Control And Verification Plans


Process Control Monitoring And Measuring

6s

UCL

CTQ/CTP Measure
LCL

Time

Understand And Manage Variation


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Prepare Control And Verification Plans


A Process Management Chart Is A Flowchart And Matrix Which Helps You Manage A Process By Summarizing

6s

Standardizing And Documenting

What The Steps In The Process Are Who Does These Steps And How Where More Detailed Work Instructions Can Be Found Where Data Is Taken On The Process And On The Product Who Takes The Data How (By What Methods) Measurements Are Taken, Recorded, And Analyzed

Monitoring

When (How Often) Data Is Collected


Who Takes Action Based On The Data Where To Find Troubleshooting Procedures What Action To Take In The Case Of Service Failures (Service Recovery)
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Response Planning

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Prepare Control And Verification Plans


Process Management Chart: Description
Standardizing And Documenting
The Plan For Doing The Work Deployment Flowchart
Detail On Key Tasks

6s
Response Planning
Act: The Response To Special Causes
Damage Control Procedure For Process Adjustment What Must Be Done To Gain Sufficient Understanding Of This Process So That The Associates Know What Adjustments And Accommodations Are Routinely Necessary To Prevent A Recurrence Of This Problem? Procedure For System Improvement Who In The Organization Needs What Data In What Form In Order To Make A Sound Decision Regarding New Systems Or Remedies At Deeper Levels In The Organization (e.g., Changes In Basic Designs Or Policies)?

Monitoring
Checking The Work
Key Process And Output Measures Identify In A Word Or Phrase The Measures To Be Monitored In Each Critical Step (e.g., Defects, Timeliness, etc.). Monitoring Standards Method For Recording Data For Each Measure, Describe How The Monitored Data Should Be Recorded (e.g., Checklist, Run Chart, Scatter Diagram, Pareto, etc.).

For Each Key Step In The Operation, Show How The Task Should Be Done, Or Refer To A Document Which Describes The Step.

For Each Measure, Describe Any Important Target, Numeric Limits, Or Tolerances To Which A Process Should Conform If It Is Running Well.

Who Should Do What With The Output Of The Defective Process?

Begin With Those Vital Signs Which Are Related To Problems You Have Experienced.

These Standards May Come From Customers, Regulatory Policies, (ISO) Or Process Knowledge Expertise.

Describe, If Necessary, Who Should Record The Data And How.

What Should Be Done For Those Who Were IllServed By These Defects?

What Adjustments Should Be Made To Assure That There Will Be No Defects In The Next Iteration?

39 19990036-1 DFSS-Design

The Monitoring Section of this chart should be based primarily on the work of creating the Design Scorecards. GE Confidential

Prepare Control And Verification Plans


Process Management Chart: Example
Process: Purpose: Dept A Dept B Dept C Process Owner:
Check The Process

6s
Date: Rev.:
Act/Fix Problem

Input/ Output Standard/ Process Measure Specification Measures


Level Of Understanding 100% Of Customers With Full Understanding

Method For Sampling/ Recording Data


Monthly Customer Survey Conducted By Measurements Group

Immediate Control/Fix

Process/ System Improvement

Reviewed Monthly By Reg. SP Comm. And NPA BOM

Customer Requests Service

Customer Requests Service

Level Of Satisfaction

90% Of Customers In Very Good And Excellent (SQMIS)

Monthly Customer Survey Conducted By Measurements Group SQMIS

Reviewed Monthly By Reg. SP Comm. And NPA BOM

Time Issuance

Issue PC Memo
Quality Issuance

POS To Fax Transmittal On Receipt Within 15 Minutes

PC Samples 25 Fax Transmittals Per Day And Plots % Completed Within Standard By Day

Assign Individual To Handle All Fax Transmittals

Reviewed Weekly By NPA SP Comm. Reviewed Monthly By Reg. SP Comm, And NPA BOM.

100% Of The PC Memos Are Accurate, Legible And Complete Requiring No Follow-Up With Individual PC Rep.

PC Exception Reports Track How Many Times Per Day Follow-Up Is Necessary With PC Rep. By PCI Graph The Number Of Exceptions By Day And Tally Reasons By Week

Train Individual Rep./Staff Discuss/Review Suggestions At Scheduled PC Site Meetings

Reviewed Weekly By NPA SP Comm. Reviewed Monthly By Reg. SP Comm, And NPA BOM.

Issue BCRIS Order

Issue BCRIS Order

Timely (PCI Only) Issuance

100% Of The Fax Transmittals Are Input To BCRIS Within 45 Min. Upon Receipt

PCI Samples BCRIS Orders Per Day And Plots % Completed Within Standard By Day

Measures Reviewed Weekly By NPA SP Comm. Measures Reviewed Monthly By Reg. SP Comm, And NPA BOM.

40 19990036-1 DFSS-Design

GE Confidential

Prepare Control And Verification Plans


Table Team Exercise

6s

Objective

Determine How To Control The Quality And Cost Of A New Process.

Instructions

For 1-3 Key CTPs Identified Earlier Today, (pg. 21 - Design), Develop The Elements Of The Process Control System -How To Standardize/Document -How To Monitor -How To Respond

Time

20 Minutes

41 19990036-1 DFSS-Design

GE Confidential

Design Summary
Road Map
Define Measure Analyze Design Verify

6s
Reviews: Tollgate 4 Design Phase

Main Deliverables - Detailed Design Control Plan Develop Detailed Design


Plan Detailed Design Effort


Design Elements

Evaluate Detailed Design Capability

Prepare Control/ Verification Plan

Develop Detailed Processes


Develop Alternatives Choose Best Develop Details Procurement

Predict/Improve Design Capability

Develop Control Strategy

Capability Analyses Failure Modes And Effects Analysis Simulate Process Performance

Control Charts/Measure Process Owners/Participants Documentation

Test And Validation Planning


Pilot Test Plan Developed/ Approved

Determine And Measure CTPs


Specification Limits Control Points, Measurements

Hold Design Reviews (Incl. Risk Assessment)


Capability, Produceability Compliance, Hardware, Software Integrate Design And Freeze

Hold Pilot Process Release Readiness Review

Tools: Process Map IT Logical/Physical Design Facilities Design Job Design Specifications QFD Benchmarking
42 19990036-1 DFSS-Design

AND/PERT FMEA/EMEA Simulation Software Tolerance Analysis Design Scorecards

Control Plan Process Management Charts Standards/Procedures Pilot/Test Plan

GE Confidential

Design Summary
Lessons Learned

6s

Freeze Your Design Specifications

Use A Phased Approach For Changes Dont Design To A Moving Target

Simplify Minimize Handoffs Standardize Process Steps (Technology Can Help)

Only Plan Controllable Process Steps Only Consider Outsourcing If It Can Be Controlled

Simulation Tools Are Helpful And Timesaving But Only As Good As You Make Them

Start Thinking Seriously About Implementation Roles, Tasks, Change Management


GE Confidential

43 19990036-1 DFSS-Design

GSO DFSS - Green Belt Training

Design: Tollgate 4

6s

Develop Detailed Process Design - Detailed Process Map Finalized - Functional Review and Approval - Define CTP Measurements & Targets - Implement Collection Routines Simulate Process & Understand Capability of New Process - If redesign required, implement fixes Develop Control Strategy - Control Plan Established - Control Charts Developed Develop Test Plan - Test requirements complete - Develop Schedule for Reviewing Issues Log of Test Results with Customer Determine Risk at This Point and Communicate Pilot Readiness Review

- Process Map - In-Process Metrics established - Simulation Validation

- Control Plan

- Test Plan

GSO
Business Champion

GE Business
Business Champion

Process Manager

Functional Owner(s)
Master Black Belt

Master Black Belt

Tollgate 4 Objective: Approved Test Plan & Timeline


44 19990036-1 DFSS-Design

GE Confidential