Division of diencephalon Pars dorsalis


1)Thalamus
2)Metathalamus- medial and lateral geniculate bodies 3)Epithalamus - Pineal gland ,habenular nuclei and commissure and post commisure Pars ventralis 1)subthalamus 2)hypothalamus

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HAS TWO LAMINAE  VENTRAL LAMINAE –IS CONTNIOUS WITH POST COMMISSURE  DORSAL LAMINAE –IS CONTINIOUS WITH HABENULAR COMMISSURE  .PINEAL GLAND.

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      CAUDATE NUCLEUS LENTIFORM NUCLEI-MEDIAL GLOBUS PALLIDUS AND LATERAL PUTAMEN AMYLOID NUCLEAR COMPLEX CLAUSTRUM SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS SUBSTANTIA NIGRA .

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arachnoid. and dura . Three membranes (the meninges) envelop the brain and spinal cord: pia.

6 Common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in a county hospital emergency room.Questionaire #8. a) b) Rupture of arterio-venous malformation Rupture of cerebral aneurysm c) d) e) Trauma Hypertension Stroke .

a) b) c) d) Rupture of arterio-venous malformation Rupture of cerebral aneurysm Hypertension Stroke .Questionaire #8.7 Likely cause of nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage in an 8 year-old girl.

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Hyperacute – Swirl Sign .

Hyperacute – Swirl Sign .

Subacute Iso-dense C+ .

CT can detect acute intracerebral blood as small as 2mm. E 8. 60 year-old patient with melanoma.6 HU (Hounsfield Units) Acute Intracerebral hematoma: Acute hematoma is seen by non-contrast imaging as an area of high density with density numbers ranging from 40 to 90HU.1 Non-contrast CT Brain CT Density 68. . Hemorrhage is from metastatic tumor bleed. due to contrast between high-density of blood and low-density of surrounding brain (arrows).Figure 1: Acute intracerebral hematoma within the right temporal lobe (arrow) with surrounding edema (E).

8. . Acute Subdural Hematoma: Up to 7 day old High CT density (40-90HU) Subacute Subdural Hematoma (7 to 21 days old) The CT density of acute blood gradually decreases and becomes isodense with adjacent brain. Acute subdural hematoma covering the right cerebral hemisphere (arrows). thus less readily visible and can be easily overlooked. subacute and chronic hematoma. outside the surface of the brain (arrows).Acute Subdural Hematoma: Subdural hematoma is located between the layers of dura and arachnoid mater. Acute subdural hematoma is recognized by CT as an area of peripheral zone of crescentic shaped increased density. Most subdural hematoma is caused by tear of bridging cortical veins. CT density of blood is 74HU consistent with acute blood.2 Non-contrast CT Brain Acute subdural hematoma can evolve over a period of time and thus classified as acute. covering the cerebral hemispheres whereas intracerebral hematoma is localized within the brain substance. Patient with history of recent fall. more prominent posteriorly.

A: Left frontal chronic subdural hematoma (arrowheads) seen as an area of low-density with crescentic inter margin. Non-contrast CT Brain CT Density 25. and also mixes with cerebrospinal fluid from adjacent subarachnoid space. Non-contrast CT Brain 09/02/2003 8. This can produce herniation of the brain resulting in sudden decompensation of the patient leading to coma. thus converting into a serosanguineous fluid. compressing the adjacent brain. Slow movement of subarachnoid fluid into the subdural hematoma can give rise to gradual expansion of subdural hematoma that can exert mass effect upon the adjacent brain with or without brain edema. 55 year-old patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia with low platelet count. .3b&c. but the right chronic subdural hematoma has increased in size in the follow-up CT done 19 days later (arrows) which was also subsequently evaluated.3a. it undergoes liquefaction. Thus even a chronic subdural hematoma might need an emergent neurosurgical intervention. This fluid has low CT density reaching close or similar to cerebrospinal fluid.0 HU (Hounsfield Units) 09/21/2003 Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Over 21 days old: Acute blood as it evolves. B: Left frontal subdural hematoma was completely evaluated using burr holes in the skull. 8.

intraventricular blood (v).5 Non-contrast CT Brain . v Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Intraventricular blood is easily recognized by high-density blood outlining the lateral ventricles.Shunt-induced (arrow). 8. Intraventricular blood is recognized by replacement of normal CSF density by highdensity of blood. III ventricle and IV ventricle.

2.9 HU Q8.8. Diagnosis Please . Non-contrast CT Brain 8.2 Non-contrast CT Brain CT Density 72.2.

3a.8.0 HU 09/21/2003 Q8.3. Non-contrast CT Brain 09/02/2003 8. Diagnosis Please . Non-contrast CT Brain CT Density 25.3b&c.

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   thank you .

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