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Introduction and Tissues

Human Anatomy BIOL 1010 Liston Campus

What is Anatomy?
Anatomy (= morphology): study of body s structure Physiology: study of body s function Structure reflects Function!!! Branches of Anatomy

Gross: Large structures Surface: Landmarks Histology: Cells and Tissues Developmental: Structures change through life Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth

Hierarchy of Structural Organization

Each of these build upon one another to make up the next level: Chemical level Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism

Hierarchy of Structural Organization

Chemical level

Atoms combine to make molecules 4 macromolecules in the body

 Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic acids

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Made up of cells and cellular organelles (molecules)

 Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic  Organelles are structures within cells that perform dedicated functions ( small organs )

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Collection of cells that work together to perform a specialized function 4 basic types of tissue in the human body:
 Epithelium  Connective tissue  Muscle tissue  Nervous tissue

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Made up of tissue
 Heart  Brain  Liver  Pancreas, etc

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Hierarchy of Structural Organization

Organ system (11)

Made up of a group of related organs that work together


Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive


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Urinary System

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


An individual human, animal, plant, etc Made up all of the organ systems Work together to sustain life

Anatomical Directions
Anatomical position Regions

Axial vs. Appendicular Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal) Medial vs. Lateral Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal) Superficial vs. Deep Proximal vs. Distal Frontal = Coronal Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section Sagittal

Anatomical Directions-It s all Relative!


Anatomical Planes

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Reference Point Anterior (ventral) Closer to the front surface of the body Medial Lying closer to the midline Superior (cranial) Closer to the head in relation to the entire body (More General) Superficial Towards the surface Proximal Closer to the origin of a body part (More Specific) Posterior (dorsal) Closer to the rear surface of the body Lateral Lying further away from the midline Inferior (caudal) Away from the head or towards the lower part of the body Deep Away from the surface Distal Further away from the origin of a body part Frontal Plane

Sagittal Plane

Horizontal Plane

Surface of body or organ Origin of a structure

4 Types of Tissue
1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous

Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that

have a similar structure and perform a related function

Four types of tissue


Epithelial = covering/lining Connective = support Muscle = movement Nervous = control

Most organs contain all 4 types Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells


cells cover a surface or line a cavity

Protection  Secretion  Absorption  Ion Transport

Characteristics of Epithelium

Composed of cells Joined by cell junctions Apical vs. Basal surfaces differ

Specialized contacts


Supported by connective tissue Avascular Innervated Highly regenerative

Classification of Epithelium-based
on number of layers and cell shape Layers

Simple Stratified
 Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer

Psuedostratified Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Transitional


Types of Epithelium
Simple squamous (1 layer)

Lungs, blood vessels, ventral body cavity Kidney tubules, glands Stomach, intestines Respiratory passages (ciliated version) Epidermis, mouth, esophagus, vagina Named so according to apical cell shape Regenerate from below Deep layers cuboidal and columnar

Simple cuboidal

Simple columnar

Pseudostratified columnar

Stratified squamous (>1 layer)


Transitional (not shown)


Thins when stretches Hollow urinary organs

All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab

Special Epithelium

Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels e.g. lymphatic & blood vessel


Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of body cavities e.g. pleura, pericardium, peritoneum

Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium

Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine  Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane

of apical epithelial cell Increase surface area for absorption

(ex) respiratory tubes


Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way

Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium

Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:

Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together Cell Junctions (3 common)

 Desmosomes  Proteins hold cells together to maintain integrity of tissue  Tight Junctions  Plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes  Gap junction  Proteins allow small molecules to pass through

Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium

Basement membrane


Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below Made up of:
 Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet made of


Superficial layer Acts as a selective filter Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells

 Reticular fiber layer  Deeper layer  Support

Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product Products are water-based and usually contain proteins Classified as:

Unicellular vs. multicellular Exocrine vs. Endocrine

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Glands: epithelial cells that make and

secrete a water-based substance w/proteins Exocrine Glands


Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity Activity is local Have ducts Unicellular or Multicellular (ex) goblet cells, salivary, mammary, pancreas, liver

Glands: epithelial cells that make and

secrete a water-based substance w/proteins Endocrine Glands


Secrete product into blood stream Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory) No ducts (ex) pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid

4 Types of Tissue
1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous

4 Types of Connective Tissue

1) 2) 3) 4)
Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Tissue Blood

Connective Tissue (CT):

most abundant and diverse tissue
Four Classes Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix Contains a variety of cells and fibers Some types vascularized All CT originates from mesenchyme

Embryonic connective tissue

Fibers in Connective Tissue

Fibers For Support

 form networks for structure & support  (ex) cover capillaries

 strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength  (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments

 long + thin, stretch and retain shape  (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage

Components of Connective Tissue


cells that produce all fibers in CT produce + secrete protein subunits to make them produce ground matrix derived from blood in CT proper medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells found in ground matrix part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid Made and secreted by fibroblasts jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules

Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid


Ground Matrix (substance):


1) Connective Tissue Proper

Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT

 Support and bind to other tissue  Hold body fluids  Defends against infection  Stores nutrients as fat

Each function performed by different kind of fibers and cells in specific tissue

Defense from Infection

Areolar tissue below epithelium is body s first defense Cells travel to CT in blood

Macrophages-eat foreign particles Plasma cells-secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction Mast cells-contain chemical mediators for inflammation response hite Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection

Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms

Loose CT Proper
Areolar CT

All types of fibers present All typical cell types present Surrounds blood vessels and nerves

Specialized Loose CT Proper

Adipose tissue


Loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity Insulates, produces energy, supports Found in hypodermis under skin Contains only reticular fibers Forms caverns to hold free cells, forms internal skeleton of some organs Found in bone marrow, holds blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen

Reticular CT

Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue

Contains more collagen Can resist extremely strong pulling forces Regular vs. Irregular

Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull

 (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments

Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions

 (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones

Dense regular

Dense irregular

Components of CT Proper Summarized

Cells Fibroblasts Defense cells
-macrophages -white blood cells

Matrix Gel-like ground substance Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers


2) Cartilage
Chondroblasts produce cartilage Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells

Reside in lacunae

More abundant in embryo than adult Firm, Flexible Resists compression

(eg) trachea, meniscus

Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen) NOT Innervated Perichondrium


dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage growth/repair of cartilage resists expansion during compression of cartilage

Cartilage in the Body

Three types:


most abundant fibers in matrix support via flexibility/resilience (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose

 many elastic fibers in matrix too  great flexibility  (eg) external ear, epiglottis

 resists both compression and

tension  (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus

Components of Cartilage Summarized

Cells Chondrocytes Matrix Gel-like ground substance

Chondroblasts Lots of water (in growing cartilage) Fibroblasts Some have collagen and elastic fibers

3) Bone Tissue:
Well-vascularized Function:

(a bone is an organ)


support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs protect (eg) skull, vertebrae mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component) movement (eg) walk, grasp objects blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow

Bone Tissue

Secrete organic part of bone matrix Mature bone cells Sit in lacunae Maintain bone matrix Degrade and reabsorb bone External layer of CT that surrounds bone
 Outer: Dense irregular CT  Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts





Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Compact Bone
External layer Osteon (Haversian system)

Parallel to the long axis of the bone Groups of concentric tubules (lamella) Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same direction
 Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions

Haversian Canal runs through center of osteon

 Contains blood vessels and nerves  Connected to each other by perforating (Volkman) canals

Interstitial lamellae fills spaces and forms periphery

Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone

Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer

Trabeculae: small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb


each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes no canal for vessels space filled with bone marrow not as dense, no direct stress at bone s center

Shapes of Bones
Flat = skull, sternum, clavicle

Irregular = pelvis, vertebrae Short = carpals, patella Long = femur, phalanges, metacarpals, humerus

Anatomy of a Long Bone


Medullary Cavity Nutrient Artery & Vein Epiphyseal Plates Epiphyseal Artery & Vein Does not cover epiphyses Covers trabeculae of spongy bone Lines medullary cavity of long bones

2 Epiphyses



2 Types of Bone Formation

Intramembranous Ossification

Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes Begins with a cartilaginous model Cartilage calcifies Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify
 Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years

Endochondral Ossification: All other bones


Bone Growth & Remodeling


Appositional Growth = widening of bone

 Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum  Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts

Lengthening of Bone
 Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts  Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)  Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side


Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs to be replaced

 Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ , PO4 to

body fluids from bone  Osteoblasts-form new bone by secreting osteoid

Ideally osteoclasts & osteoblasts work at the same rate!

Components of Bone Tissue Summarized

Cells Osteblasts Matrix Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Collagen fibers

Fibroblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts

4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue



Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system Helps regulate body temperature Protects body by fighting infection

Derived from mesenchyme Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells


Occurs in red bone marrow In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur

Blood Cells
Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting
most abundant in blood no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin pick up O2 at lungs, transport to rest of body

Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types

fight against infectious microorganisms stored in bone marrow for emergencies

*Platelets = Thrombocytes:
fragments of cytoplasm plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting

Components of Blood Summarized

Cells Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Leukocytes (white blood cells) Matrix Plasma (liquid matrix) NO fibers

*Platelets (cell fragments)

4 Types of Tissue
1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous

Muscle Tissue
Muscle cells/fibers

Elongated Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin Movement Maintenance of posture Joint Stabilization Heat Generation


Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

(each skeletal muscle is an organ)

Long and cylindrical, in bundles Multinucleate Obvious Striations

Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary Connective Tissue Components:


Endomysium-surrounds fibers Perimysium-surrounds bundles Epimysium-surrounds the muscle

Attached to bones, fascia, skin Origin & Insertion

Cardiac Muscle

Branching, chains of cells Single or Binucleated Striations Connected by Intercalated discs

Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary Myocardium-heart muscle

Pumps blood through vessels Endomysium: surrounding cells

Connective Tissue Component

Smooth Muscle Tissue

Single cells, uninucleate No striations

Smooth Muscle-Involuntary
2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)

Found in hollow organs, blood vessels Connective Tissue Component

Endomysium: surrounds cells

4 Types of Tissue
1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous

Nervous Tissue
Neurons: specialized nerve cells conduct impulses

Cell body, dendrite, axon No mitosis (cell replication) Longevity High metabolic rate

Characterized by:

Nervous Tissue: control

Support cells (= Neuroglial): nourishment, insulation, protection

Satellite cells-surround cell bodies within ganglia Schwann cells-surround axons (PNS) Microglia-phagocytes Oligodendrocytes-produce myelin sheaths around axons Ependymal cells-line brain/spinal cord, ciliated, help circulate CSF

Brain, spinal cord, nerves

Integumentary System

 Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV


Cushions & insulates deeper organs Prevention of water loss Thermoregulation Excretion
 Salts, urea, water

Sensory reception

Microanatomy - Layers of the Skin



Connective tissue Loose connective tissue Anchors skin to bone or muscle Hair follicles Sweat and Sebaceous glands Nails

Hypodermis / subcutis

Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis

Cell Layers of the Epidermis

Stratum corneum

Dead keratinocytes Only in thick skin Dead keratinocytes Water proofing Resists tears and tension Sensory receptors Melanocytes Keratinocytes (in all layers)

Stratum lucidum

Stratum granulosum

Stratum spinosum

Stratum basale

Layers of the Dermis

Highly innervated Highly vascularized Collagen & Elastic fibers 2 layers:

Papillary layer (20%)


Areolar CT Collagen & Elastic fibers Innervation Hair follicles

Reticular layer (80%)

 Dense irregular CT  Glands

sebum 2.5 million sweat glands!!

 Smooth muscle fibers  Innervation

Also called superficial fascia Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue Functions

Store fat Anchor skin to muscle, etc. Insulation

Structure of Tubular Organs

LUMEN Tunica Mucosa

Lamina epithelialis Lamina propria Lamina muscularis mucosa

Tunica Submucosa Tunica Muscularis


Inner circular Outer longitudinal Adventitia covers organ directly Serosa suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity

Tunica Adventitia / Serosa