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Introduction and Tissues

Human Anatomy BIOL 1010 Liston Campus

What is Anatomy?
Anatomy (= morphology): study of body s structure Physiology: study of body s function Structure reflects Function!!! Branches of Anatomy
    

Gross: Large structures Surface: Landmarks Histology: Cells and Tissues Developmental: Structures change through life Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Each of these build upon one another to make up the next level: Chemical level Cellular Tissue Organ Organ system Organism

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Chemical level
 

Atoms combine to make molecules 4 macromolecules in the body


 Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Nucleic acids

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Cellular


Made up of cells and cellular organelles (molecules)


 Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic  Organelles are structures within cells that perform dedicated functions ( small organs )

http://cmweb.pvschools.net/~bbecke/newell/Cells.html

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Tissue


Collection of cells that work together to perform a specialized function 4 basic types of tissue in the human body:
 Epithelium  Connective tissue  Muscle tissue  Nervous tissue

www.emc.maricopa.edu

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Organ


Made up of tissue
 Heart  Brain  Liver  Pancreas, etc

Pg 181

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Organ system (11)


Made up of a group of related organs that work together


          

Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive

Circulatory

Pg 341

Urinary System

Hierarchy of Structural Organization


Organism
  

An individual human, animal, plant, etc Made up all of the organ systems Work together to sustain life

Anatomical Directions
Anatomical position Regions


Axial vs. Appendicular Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal) Medial vs. Lateral Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal) Superficial vs. Deep Proximal vs. Distal Frontal = Coronal Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section Sagittal

Anatomical Directions-It s all Relative!


    

Anatomical Planes
  

Pg 5

Reference Point Anterior (ventral) Closer to the front surface of the body Medial Lying closer to the midline Superior (cranial) Closer to the head in relation to the entire body (More General) Superficial Towards the surface Proximal Closer to the origin of a body part (More Specific) Posterior (dorsal) Closer to the rear surface of the body Lateral Lying further away from the midline Inferior (caudal) Away from the head or towards the lower part of the body Deep Away from the surface Distal Further away from the origin of a body part Frontal Plane

Sagittal Plane

Horizontal Plane

Surface of body or organ Origin of a structure

4 Types of Tissue
1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous

Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that


have a similar structure and perform a related function

Four types of tissue


   

Epithelial = covering/lining Connective = support Muscle = movement Nervous = control

Most organs contain all 4 types Tissue has non-living extracellular material between its cells

EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets of


cells cover a surface or line a cavity

Functions
Protection  Secretion  Absorption  Ion Transport


Characteristics of Epithelium
Cellularity


Composed of cells Joined by cell junctions Apical vs. Basal surfaces differ

Specialized contacts


Polarity


Supported by connective tissue Avascular Innervated Highly regenerative

Classification of Epithelium-based
on number of layers and cell shape Layers
 

Simple Stratified
 Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer

Psuedostratified Squamous Cuboidal Columnar Transitional

Shapes
   

Types of Epithelium
Simple squamous (1 layer)


Lungs, blood vessels, ventral body cavity Kidney tubules, glands Stomach, intestines Respiratory passages (ciliated version) Epidermis, mouth, esophagus, vagina Named so according to apical cell shape Regenerate from below Deep layers cuboidal and columnar

Simple cuboidal


Simple columnar


Pseudostratified columnar


Stratified squamous (>1 layer)


   

Transitional (not shown)


 

Thins when stretches Hollow urinary organs


All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab

Special Epithelium
Endothelium
 

Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels e.g. lymphatic & blood vessel

Mesothelium


Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of body cavities e.g. pleura, pericardium, peritoneum

Features of Apical Surface of Epithelium


Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine  Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane


of apical epithelial cell Increase surface area for absorption


(ex) respiratory tubes

Cilia:
 

Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way

Features of Lateral Surface of Epithelium


Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:
 

Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together Cell Junctions (3 common)


 Desmosomes  Proteins hold cells together to maintain integrity of tissue  Tight Junctions  Plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes  Gap junction  Proteins allow small molecules to pass through

Features of the Basal Surface of Epithelium


Basement membrane


 

Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue layers Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below Made up of:
 Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet made of

proteins
  

Superficial layer Acts as a selective filter Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells

 Reticular fiber layer  Deeper layer  Support

Glands
Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product Products are water-based and usually contain proteins Classified as:
 

Unicellular vs. multicellular Exocrine vs. Endocrine

Page 138

Glands: epithelial cells that make and


secrete a water-based substance w/proteins Exocrine Glands


   

Secrete substance onto body surface or into body cavity Activity is local Have ducts Unicellular or Multicellular (ex) goblet cells, salivary, mammary, pancreas, liver

Glands: epithelial cells that make and


secrete a water-based substance w/proteins Endocrine Glands
 

 

Secrete product into blood stream Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle surrounded by secretory cells Hormones travel to target organ to increase response (excitatory) No ducts (ex) pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid

4 Types of Tissue
1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous

4 Types of Connective Tissue


1) 2) 3) 4)
Connective Tissue Proper Cartilage Bone Tissue Blood

Connective Tissue (CT):


most abundant and diverse tissue
Four Classes Functions include connecting, storing & carrying nutrients, protection, fight infection CT contains large amounts of non-living extracellular matrix Contains a variety of cells and fibers Some types vascularized All CT originates from mesenchyme


Embryonic connective tissue

Fibers in Connective Tissue


Fibers For Support


Reticular:
 form networks for structure & support  (ex) cover capillaries

Collagen:
 strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength  (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments

Elastic:
 long + thin, stretch and retain shape  (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage

Components of Connective Tissue


Fibroblasts:
  

cells that produce all fibers in CT produce + secrete protein subunits to make them produce ground matrix derived from blood in CT proper medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells found in ground matrix part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs interstitial fluid Made and secreted by fibroblasts jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules

Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid


  

Ground Matrix (substance):




 

1) Connective Tissue Proper


Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT


Functions
 Support and bind to other tissue  Hold body fluids  Defends against infection  Stores nutrients as fat

Each function performed by different kind of fibers and cells in specific tissue

Defense from Infection


Areolar tissue below epithelium is body s first defense Cells travel to CT in blood
 

Macrophages-eat foreign particles Plasma cells-secrete antibodies, mark molecules for destruction Mast cells-contain chemical mediators for inflammation response hite Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils-fight infection

Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading microorganisms

Loose CT Proper
Areolar CT
  

All types of fibers present All typical cell types present Surrounds blood vessels and nerves

Specialized Loose CT Proper


Adipose tissue


 

Loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high metabolic activity Insulates, produces energy, supports Found in hypodermis under skin Contains only reticular fibers Forms caverns to hold free cells, forms internal skeleton of some organs Found in bone marrow, holds blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen

Reticular CT
 

Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue


Contains more collagen Can resist extremely strong pulling forces Regular vs. Irregular


Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull


 (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments

Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions


 (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones

Dense regular

Dense irregular

Components of CT Proper Summarized


Cells Fibroblasts Defense cells
-macrophages -white blood cells

Matrix Gel-like ground substance Collagen fibers Reticular fibers Elastic fibers

Adipocytes

2) Cartilage
Chondroblasts produce cartilage Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells


Reside in lacunae

More abundant in embryo than adult Firm, Flexible Resists compression




(eg) trachea, meniscus

Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen) NOT Innervated Perichondrium


  

dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage growth/repair of cartilage resists expansion during compression of cartilage

Cartilage in the Body


Three types:


Hyaline
   

most abundant fibers in matrix support via flexibility/resilience (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose

Elastic
 many elastic fibers in matrix too  great flexibility  (eg) external ear, epiglottis

Fibrocartilage
 resists both compression and

tension  (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus

Components of Cartilage Summarized


Cells Chondrocytes Matrix Gel-like ground substance

Chondroblasts Lots of water (in growing cartilage) Fibroblasts Some have collagen and elastic fibers

3) Bone Tissue:
Well-vascularized Function:
  

(a bone is an organ)

 

support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs protect (eg) skull, vertebrae mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate (inorganic component) movement (eg) walk, grasp objects blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow

Bone Tissue
Osteoblasts


Secrete organic part of bone matrix Mature bone cells Sit in lacunae Maintain bone matrix Degrade and reabsorb bone External layer of CT that surrounds bone
 Outer: Dense irregular CT  Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts

Osteocytes
  

Osteoclasts


Periosteum


Endosteum
 

Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts

academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../skeletal.htm

Compact Bone
External layer Osteon (Haversian system)
  

Parallel to the long axis of the bone Groups of concentric tubules (lamella) Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same direction
 Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions

Haversian Canal runs through center of osteon


 Contains blood vessels and nerves  Connected to each other by perforating (Volkman) canals

Interstitial lamellae fills spaces and forms periphery


www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/.../CartilageandBone03.htm

Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone

Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer




Trabeculae: small, needle-like pieces of bone form honeycomb


   

each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes no canal for vessels space filled with bone marrow not as dense, no direct stress at bone s center

Shapes of Bones
Flat = skull, sternum, clavicle

Irregular = pelvis, vertebrae Short = carpals, patella Long = femur, phalanges, metacarpals, humerus

Anatomy of a Long Bone


Diaphysis
 

Medullary Cavity Nutrient Artery & Vein Epiphyseal Plates Epiphyseal Artery & Vein Does not cover epiphyses Covers trabeculae of spongy bone Lines medullary cavity of long bones

2 Epiphyses
 

Periosteum


Endosteum
 

training.seer.cancer.gov/.../illu_long_bone.jpg

2 Types of Bone Formation


Intramembranous Ossification
 

Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes Begins with a cartilaginous model Cartilage calcifies Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify
 Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years

Endochondral Ossification: All other bones


   

Bone Growth & Remodeling


GROWTH


Appositional Growth = widening of bone


 Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum  Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts

Lengthening of Bone
 Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts  Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)  Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side

REMODELING


Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs to be replaced


 Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ , PO4 to

body fluids from bone  Osteoblasts-form new bone by secreting osteoid




Ideally osteoclasts & osteoblasts work at the same rate!

Components of Bone Tissue Summarized


Cells Osteblasts Matrix Gel-like ground substance calcified with inorganic salts Collagen fibers

Fibroblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts

4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue


Function:


 

Transports waste, gases, nutrients, hormones through cardiovascular system Helps regulate body temperature Protects body by fighting infection

Derived from mesenchyme Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells


 

Occurs in red bone marrow In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur

Blood Cells
Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting
most abundant in blood no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin pick up O2 at lungs, transport to rest of body

Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types


fight against infectious microorganisms stored in bone marrow for emergencies

*Platelets = Thrombocytes:
fragments of cytoplasm plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting

Components of Blood Summarized


Cells Erythrocytes (red blood cells) Leukocytes (white blood cells) Matrix Plasma (liquid matrix) NO fibers

*Platelets (cell fragments)

4 Types of Tissue
1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous

Muscle Tissue
Muscle cells/fibers
 

Elongated Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin Movement Maintenance of posture Joint Stabilization Heat Generation

FUNCTION
   

Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth

Skeletal Muscle Tissue


(each skeletal muscle is an organ)
Cells
  

Long and cylindrical, in bundles Multinucleate Obvious Striations

Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary Connective Tissue Components:


  

Endomysium-surrounds fibers Perimysium-surrounds bundles Epimysium-surrounds the muscle

Attached to bones, fascia, skin Origin & Insertion


academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../muscular.htm

Cardiac Muscle
Cells
   

Branching, chains of cells Single or Binucleated Striations Connected by Intercalated discs

Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary Myocardium-heart muscle




Pumps blood through vessels Endomysium: surrounding cells


www.answers.com

Connective Tissue Component




Smooth Muscle Tissue


Cells
Single cells, uninucleate No striations

Smooth Muscle-Involuntary
2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)

Found in hollow organs, blood vessels Connective Tissue Component


Endomysium: surrounds cells

4 Types of Tissue
1)Epithelium 2)Connective 3)Muscle 4)Nervous

Nervous Tissue
Neurons: specialized nerve cells conduct impulses


Cell body, dendrite, axon No mitosis (cell replication) Longevity High metabolic rate

Characterized by:
  

www.morphonix.com

Nervous Tissue: control


Support cells (= Neuroglial): nourishment, insulation, protection
    

Satellite cells-surround cell bodies within ganglia Schwann cells-surround axons (PNS) Microglia-phagocytes Oligodendrocytes-produce myelin sheaths around axons Ependymal cells-line brain/spinal cord, ciliated, help circulate CSF

Brain, spinal cord, nerves

Integumentary System
Functions


Protection
 Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV

   

Cushions & insulates deeper organs Prevention of water loss Thermoregulation Excretion
 Salts, urea, water

Sensory reception

Microanatomy - Layers of the Skin


Epidermis
 Epithelium

Dermis


Connective tissue Loose connective tissue Anchors skin to bone or muscle Hair follicles Sweat and Sebaceous glands Nails

Hypodermis / subcutis
 

Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis


  

www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg

Cell Layers of the Epidermis


Stratum corneum


Dead keratinocytes Only in thick skin Dead keratinocytes Water proofing Resists tears and tension Sensory receptors Melanocytes Keratinocytes (in all layers)

Stratum lucidum
 

Stratum granulosum


Stratum spinosum


Stratum basale
  

15minbeauty.blogspot.com

Layers of the Dermis


Highly innervated Highly vascularized Collagen & Elastic fibers 2 layers:


Papillary layer (20%)


   

Areolar CT Collagen & Elastic fibers Innervation Hair follicles

Reticular layer (80%)


 Dense irregular CT  Glands
 

sebum 2.5 million sweat glands!!


www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg

 Smooth muscle fibers  Innervation

Hypodermis
Also called superficial fascia Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue Functions
  

Store fat Anchor skin to muscle, etc. Insulation

Structure of Tubular Organs


LUMEN Tunica Mucosa
  

Lamina epithelialis Lamina propria Lamina muscularis mucosa

Tunica Submucosa Tunica Muscularis


 

Inner circular Outer longitudinal Adventitia covers organ directly Serosa suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity

Tunica Adventitia / Serosa