000 years ago and has recorded the dreams and visions of their people. Chinese language.the most ancient ancient still spoken and the oldest written language still used by man. NO – in English). It is monosyllabic and has only one syllable (Ex. .  Began about 5.

There is a great difference between the Chinese language as spoken and as written. . The spoken vocabulary is less than the written vocabulary. It is called ideographic.   It has a tonal language meaning the same word changes in meaning when it is said with an upward or a downward tone or with a high or low tone. It is based on ideas. Chinese Writing – does not represent the sounds that compose the spoken word. Chinese is written from right to left. in columns from top to bottom. not phonetics (sounds).

1. Book of History – an outline of history before the time of Confucius .   Chinese recognizes five books that form the foundation of their cultural. Book of Changes – an outline of prophecy and augury 2. and traditional life. political.

   3. Book of Rites – an outline of social etiquette 4. The Spring and autumn Annals Confucius – westernized name of  Kung Fu-tze  Kung – proper name tze – signifying teacher  Fu – signifying revered  . Book of Odes – an outline of poetry 5.

The superior man understands what is right. . Do not worry about people not knowing you. 2.     1. 5. thinking without reading makes one flighty. the inferior man blames others. The superior man blames himself. Reading without thinking gives one a disorderly mind. but strive to be worth knowing. 3. 4. the inferior man understands what will sell. the inferior man his property. The superior man loves his soul.

In form they are like the Biblical Psalms. rice planting and harvesting. Sabah. They have no very strict formal pattern. Island Southeast Asia is the archipelago group that lies south of the Philippines. sickness. Borneo. The songs or exorcisms were used during critical periods in the life of the people: birth. war. head hunting. and drought. . It is composed of Indonesia (the largest archipelago in the world). and Malaysia.  Indonesian Literature has a religious function. pregnancy. death.

 Orally transmitted prose forms are very varied and include: myths. puzzles and riddles.  One of the earliest references to Indonesia is found in the Ramayana the great Indian epic of the first century AD. animal stories and beast fables. legends. which mentions Javadvipa and Saravanadvipa. the island of gold and silver. fairy tales. anecdotes. and adventure stories. .

the first rhyming with the third and the second with the fourth.  Malay Literature in Indonesia consisted chiefly of novels and poetry. The most important in quantity written literature are the Javanese and Malay Literature . which consists of four lines written in a romantic bein. The last two lines express a sentiment very familiar to classical urdu poetry. The best known poems were in the form of pantum. They were learned by the heart.

and Filipino. Rustan Effendi. Chairil Anwar was like a burning torch that illuminated Indonesian literature. . and Sanusi Pani were influenced by the West.  By the malay and bahasa Indonesian poets Muhammad Yamin. in particulaly Dutch. English. His poems have been translated into Dutch.

. Takdir Alishjobana. editor and one founders of the review Pudjangga Baru (The new writer. is another important writer with an interesting stories about his people. a Magsaysay Memorial Foundation Awardee and an editor of the newspaper Indonesian Raya.  Mochtar Lubis. His two novels are The Ever Lighted Lamp (1952) and Unruffled Sails (1938).

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