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Arthropods with chitinous exoskeleton Body divided in 3 parts(head, thorax,
abdomen) 3 pairs of legs Presence of compound eyes and a pair of antennae Developments involves a series of molts The only invertebrates to have evolved flight May be nearly found in all environments Some may be parasitic or insectivorous May undergo and develop from 4 different kinds of metamorphosis
Queen of the Philippines. This stately butterfly is endemic to the Philippines where it is now threatened. This species is related to the giant birdwings of Papua New Guinea. It has a slow deliberate flight and looks almost like it should stall in mid air. It is mimicked by the Scarlet Swallowtail which lacks the red head of this species. Semperi is rarely seen in butterfly display.
unsegmented exoskeletal head capsule or epicranium . sclerotized. heavily.Segmentation HEAD Enclosed in a hard.
Each ommatidium consists of: A lens (the front surface of which makes up a single facet) A transparent crystalline cone Light-sensitive visual cells arranged in a radial pattern like the sections of an orange Pigment cells which separate the ommatidium from its neighbors. each of which functions as a separate visual receptor. .Arthropod eyes are called compound eyes because they are made up of repeating units. the ommatidia.
Segmentation THORAX Segment composed of three sections. mesothorax and the metathorax. . the prothorax.
which typically consist of 11 – 12 segments and is less sclerotized than the head or thorax .Segmentation ABDOMEN The last segment of the insect.
seta ( hair) waxy layer . This segmented "shell" is what gives insects shape and can be very hard in some insects.Exoskeleton Insects possess an exterior covering called the exoskeleton. It is often covered with a waxy layer and may have "hairs" called setae. Insects do not have internal bones.
circulation. and digestion.Internal Anatomy Inside the insect we find the systems for respiration. nerves. but there is little resemblance to the same systems found in man or other mammals. foregut Digestive sys hindgut midgut .
Digestive System foregut hindgut Digestive sys midgut The digestive system is a tube (alimentary canal) that opens at the mouth and empties at the tail end of the insect. and hind gut. . In some insects such as the honey bee. It is divided into three parts called the foregut. the foregut acts as a crop to carry or hold liquids which can be regurgitated later. midgut.
Respiratory System The respiratory system is composed of air sacs and tubes called tracheae. Air enters the tubes through a series of openings called spiracles found along the sides of the body. The largest spiracles are usually found on the thorax where greater musculature from wings and legs require more oxygen. There are no spiracles on the head. .
tracheal tubes spiracles Respiratory System .
The insect circulatory system is a simple tube down the back which is open at both ends and slowly pulses body fluids and nutrients from the rear of the insect to the head. veins and arteries which circulate blood cells and transport oxygen. .Circulatory System “ heart ” aortic pumps Circ system The circulatory system is not composed of a central heart.
The brain is divided into two main parts. two lobed brain Nervous system (ganglia) nerve bundles Nervous System . The largest lobes control important areas such as the eyes. and mouthparts. The nerve chord runs along the ventral or bottom aspect of an insect. Other major concentrations of nerve bundles called ganglia occur along the nerve chord and usually control those body functions closest to it. antennae.Insects have a less centralized nervous system than humans.
which is sclerotized and may be intricate . Gonads (testes) Paired. bilaterally arranged Site of spermatogenesis Contain multiple sperm tubes Housed in peritoneal sheath Transfer structures Vas efferens Vas deferens Seminal vesicles Aedeagus and ejaculatory duct an aedeagus (penis).
Gonads Lateral oviducts Median oviduct Genital chamber Spermathecal structures Accessory glands .
Oviparity Egg laid shortly after fertilization No retention No nutrients to embryo after fertilization .
Eggs retained until embryogenesis complete Embryo fed by egg reserves Female deposits nymph/larva Example: many Aphids .
Eggs retained and Embryo fed by mother Immatures may complete development before deposition Examples: Strepsipterans. Tsetse fly .
recently molted roach Cicada molting .Moulting (molting) Molting is the process by which insects grow. So in order for the insect to grow or to increase in size. the insect must shed its current skin in favor of the new skin underneath. The exoskeleton of the insects is basically their underlying bone structure that is located on the outside of their bodies with corresponding organs and muscles located underneath this hard shell.
Moulting (Molting) .
.Life Cycles The many diverse orders of insects have four different types of life cycles. These life cycles are called "metamorphosis" because of the changes of shape that the insects undergo during development.
The young resemble adults except for size.egg Without Metamorphosis nymphs adult The first type is "without" metamorphosis which the wingless primitive orders such as silverfish (Thysanura) and springtails (Collembola) possess. .
Incomplete Metamorphosis The second type is "incomplete" metamorphosis which is found among the aquatic insect orders such as mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and dragonflies (Odonata). .
and true bugs (Hemiptera). . This life cycle starts as an egg. or nymphal stage looks similar. thrips (Thysanoptera). except it lacks wings and the reproductive capacity that the adult possesses. termites (Isoptera). but each growth.Gradual Metamorphosis The third type is "gradual" metamorphosis seen in such orders as the grasshoppers (Orthoptera).
wasps. This life cycle has the four stages of egg. and bees. Each stage is quite distinct. beetles (Coleoptera). pupa. . larva.Complete Metamorphosis The fourth type is "complete" metamorphosis found in butterflies (Lepidoptera). and adult. flies (Diptera). and ants (Hymenoptera).
Order Microcoryphia Order Zygentoma Order Odonata Order Plecoptera Order Megaloptera Order Raphidioptera Order Neuroptera Order Coleoptera Order Phasmida Order Orthoptera Order Notoptera Order Dermaptera Order Mantodea Order Blattodea Order Zoraptera Order Psocodea Order Hemiptera Order Hymenoptera Order Trichoptera Order Lepidoptera Order Mecoptera Order Diptera Order Strepsiptera Order Siphonaptera Order Protorthoptera Order Thysanoptera .
. some insects are critical to agriculture. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most studied organisms in biological research.Economic Importance In Research Model organism in genetics and bioprospecting sources of pharmaceuticals. This European honey bee is gathering nectar while pollen collects on its body. In Agriculture Because they help flowering plants to cross-pollinate. particularly in genetics and developmental biology.
DISEASE AGENTS Diseases provide natural population control. Swarm of black flies . helping to control overpopulation or overexploitation of natural resources.
a hoverfly. Caterpillar and Braconoid Wasp larvae . Parasitic wasps are increasingly used in agricultural pest control as they prey mostly on pest insects and have little impact on crops. are beneficial to humans because they eat insects that could cause damage to agriculture and human structures. or insects which feed on other insects. Insectivorous relationships such as these help control insect populations. A robber fly with its prey.Insect Pest Control Insectivorous insect.