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PRESENTED BY: Jawad Haider Fahad khan

The force which drives behaviour

DIRECTION - i.e. what a person is trying to do EFFORT - how hard a person is trying PERSISTENCE - i.e. how long a person continues trying

Content Theories of Motivation

Process Theories of Motivation

Maslows Need Hierarchy Alderfers ERG Theory McClelland's Learned Needs Herzbergs Two Factor Theory

Reinforcement Theory Expectancy theory Equity theory Goal setting



Safety Physiological

Clayton Alderfer reworked Maslow's Need Hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical research. Alderfer's theory is called the ERG theory -- Existence, Relatedness, and Growth.

Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence requirements; what Maslow called physiological and safety needs. Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships; similar to Maslow's social/love need, and the external component of his esteem need. Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development; the intrinsic component of Maslow's esteem need, and selfactualization

Need for Achievement

Need for Power

Need for Affiliation

The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to

solve problems, or to master complex tasks.

High need for achievement people: Prefer individual responsibilities. Prefer challenging goals. Prefer performance feedback.

The desire to establish and maintain friendly and

warm relations with others.

High need for affiliation people:

Are drawn to interpersonal relationships.

Seek opportunities for communication.

The desire to control others, to influence their

behavior, or to be responsible for others.

High need for power people:

Seek influence over others.

Like attention. Like recognition.

Developed by Frederick Herzberg.

Also known as Two Factor theory. Portrays two different factors hygiene factors

and motivator factors as the primary causes of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction.

Hygiene factors. (Mostly Extrinsic)

Sources of job dissatisfaction. Associated with the job context or work setting. Improving hygiene factors prevent people from

being dissatisfied but do not contribute to satisfaction.

Motivator factors. (Mostly Intrinsic) Sources of job satisfaction. Associated with the job content. Building motivator factors into the job enables people to be satisfied. Absence of motivator factors in the job results in low satisfaction, low motivation, and low performance.

Motivation ( M)=Expectation (E) x Valence Where: Expectancy - If I tried would I be able to perform the action? Valence - How much do I value those outcomes?
Individual Effort

Individual Performance

Organisational Rewards 3

1. Effort-Performance relationship = Expectancy 2. Performance-Rewards relationship = Instrumentality 3. Rewards-Personal goals relationship = Valence

Personal Goals

Your tutor offers you 1 million if you memorise the textbook by tomorrow morning.

Effort - Performance Link
No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible

Performance - Rewards Link
Your tutor does not look like someone who has 1 million

Rewards - Personal Goals Link
There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with 1 million

to memorise the text in 24 hours

E=0 I=0 V=1

Conclusion: Though you value the reward, you will not be motivated to do this task.

A goal is a target level of performance If a goal is: difficult


And if a person:

accepts the goal feels committed to it gets feedback on their progress their behaviour is focused they try hard they keep trying they develop strategies

Then their performance improves because:

Individuals compare their job inputs & outcomes with those of others & then respond so as to eliminate any inequities
Minor qualifications:

1. people have a great deal more tolerance of overpayment inequities than of underpayment inequities. 2. not all people are equity sensitive,such as benevolent types

1. Successful work performance can arise from many different needs/motives.

2. People need to believe they can perform effectively if they try. 3. The rewards for good performance should actually be desired by the people concerned. 4. What constitutes good performance should be clearly defined. 5. People need feedback on their performance. 6. Peoples values and identity matter.