Communication

Meaning:
Communication is the art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another. Some Definition: “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinion, emotion by two or more persons.” “Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organisation so that an understanding response results.”
-Peter Little

-Newman and Summer

means a medium  Communication, also, means interactions  communication is a process of developing relationships
 Communication

The Evolution of Communication
   

Speech shaped the Nomadic Era and the formation of small groups and camps. Writing emerged in the Agricultural Age and made large-scale hierarchies possible. Printing spread specialized knowledge in the bureaucratic Industrial Age. In the information age era of the Network Age, electronic media have shrunk the planet to “global village”.

Words written, &/or spoken
Words account for 7% of communication while the norms of delivery (volume, pitch, rhythm, tone, etc.) accounts for approx. 38%...... This means that the: Perceived Attitude= 55% facial expressions + 38% paralanguage + 7% verbal……

Verbal communication

INTERNAL

EXTERNAL

INTERNAL COMMUNICATION

INTRAPERSONAL
Bye, bye.. useless computer

INTERPERSONAL EXTRAPERSONAL

EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION

PEOPLE OUTSIDE THE ORGANIZATION

TELEPHONIC

Think before you speak Optimum listening conditions Speak clearly Be precise and brief Be honest Watch your tone….

Informal communication

It is the pattern of communication based on friendships, shared personal or career interest and proximity between workers… Basically used to confirm formal messages… To fill the gaps if any left by incomplete formal messages… This is the fastest communication network and less time-consuming….

GRAPEVINE~an integral part of informal communication  GRAPEVINE arises from social

 

interactions,it is as flexible, dynamic and varied as people are… Every organization has an active rumour mill working…. Grapevine is often looked down upon….but in normal business situations between 75%-95% of grapevine information is correct.. Bosses who chose not to pay attention to grapevine have 50% less credible information than those who

o

TYPES OF GRAPEVINE CHAIN
SINGLE o PROBABILITY CHAIN
D Y

STRAND

o GOSSIP

A

D G K

C

CHAIN
C
B

E E G H F I J C C D

o CLUSTER CHAIN
F H G G

B

D

A A
F

B

THE DARK AND THE BRIGHT SIDE OF GRAPEVINE
MERITS  SPEEDY
TRANSMISSION  FEEDBACK VALUE  PSYCHOLOGICAL SATISFACTION  SUPPORT TO OTHER CHANNELS

DEMERITS
CONTRADICTED NO CLEAR VIEW DISTORTS THE INFORMATION DAMAGES THE REPUTATION

Nonverbal communication is the body language, color, smell, or contact eyes.

      

Facial expression Eye contact. Paralanguage. Posture Gesture Silence. Clothing.

Facial expressions usually communicate emotions. The expressions tell the attitudes of the communicator.

Eye contact is the most obvious way you communicate. When you are looking at the other person, you show interest. When you fail to make eye contact, you give the impression that the other person is of no importance. Maintain eye contact about 60% of the time in order to look interested, but not aggressive.

Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is the study of nonverbal cues of the voice. Various acoustic properties of speech such as tone, pitch and accent, collectively known as prosody, can all give off nonverbal cues.

Examples:

Loudness indicates strength in Arabic cultures, indicates confidence and authority to the Germans and softness indicates weakness; But it is opposite to Asian culture.

Posture is defined as the relative position or attitude of the body at any one period of time. Correct posture is the position in which minimal stress is applied to your joints. Very often painful conditions of the spine and extremities can originate in areas of high stress often precipitated by faulty postures and musculoskeletal imbalances.

A gesture is a form of nonverbal communication made with a part of the body, used instead of or in combination with verbal communication. The language of gesture allows individuals to express a variety of feelings and thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approval and affection.

Silence can communicate
     

– Agreement. – Disagreement. – Confusion. – Respect. – Sadness. – Thoughtfulness, or any number of meanings.

CLOTHINGS
Clothing can reflect cultural heritage.  Example: – Traditional clothing of Gambia  • Clothing can reflect subgroup identity.  Example: – US Army Combat Uniform.

• Spray and Pray:
• Organizational equivalent of a large lecture session. Managers assume “more is better”.

2. Tell and Sell:
Restricted set of messages conveyed. Importance and relevance of message explained.

• Underscore and Explore:
• It is a two-way strategy-----Receivers actively participate. • Organizations’ priorities are included and justification is offered. Employee feedback is appreciated.

4. Identify and Reply:
• A reactive or defensive strategy. • Employees about prior communications are central focus here. Employees essentially drive the process .

5. Withhold and Uphold:
• Information is viewed as power---- restricted $ rationed. • People are told as, and when the organization thinks its necessary for them to know.

Communication Effectiveness

High

Underscore $ Explore Tell $ Sell Identify and Reply Withhold $ Uphold

Low

Spray $ Pray Great Little

Amount of information transmitted

Barriers to communication can occur if the recipient has failed to convey the meaning or / and the importance of the message. 1. Sender breakdown – too much information is being sent, so
the recipient misses key points. Also, language can be difficult to understand, as it can be too complex.

2. Method breakdown – when information is very detailed or
complicated, then written instructions are better than messages which can be misinterpreted.

3. Recipient breakdown – the recipient deliberately makes a
choice to misinterpret the message because of their attitude to either the sender to the message at hand.

Other problems with communication could be:
Long chain of command.

Language - complex, and hard to understand.

Vague purpose – not detailed enough, more explanation required

Inappropriate medium (method used, e.g. written, electronically etc).

Red tape – message gets passed on to many different people before finally reaching the recipient making the process too long and the message changing. Also, actions can be delayed as a result of a late arrival of the message.

Status of two parties – can be intimidated by the other person’s status because of their gender, age etc.

Location – distance of recipient or where message has to reach.

Distraction – Communication channels breaking up.

Traditional Pyramid

Hourglass

Cluster Virtual

# The greatest difference between conventional teams, and virtual teams is in their “LINKS”

# Virtual teams work across space, time, and organizational boundaries, with links strengthened by webs of communication technology.

# Electronic media are dissolving the historic connection between physical place and social place.

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