Introduction to Embedded Systems Design

By:Nisha kumari ECE ‘B’ , VII sem

Contents
• • • • • • • • • • Microprocessor vs microcontroller Embedded system Components Designing Keil microvision3 8051 Application board Applications Merits Demerits Conclusion

Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller
Microprocessor
• CPU is stand-alone, RAM, ROM, I/O, timer are separate • Designer can decide on the amount of ROM, RAM and I/O ports. • Expensive • Versatility • Multipurpose • Concerned with rapid movement of the code & data from the external addresses to the chip.

Microcontroller
• CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer are all on a single chip • Fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, I/O ports • For applications in which cost, power and space are critical • Specific purpose • Concerned with the rapid movement of the bits within the chip.

EMBEDDED SYSTEM
• Special-purpose computer system designed to perform a dedicated function. • Performs one or a few pre-defined tasks, usually with very specific requirements, and often includes task-specific hardware and mechanical parts not usually found in a general-purpose computer.

processors. Software .A2D.sensors Digital components :.Components of embedded system • • • • Analog components :. coprocessors Converters :. D2A.

EMBEDDED DESIGNING • • • • Core hardware Firmware tools Programming tools Hardware tools .

Core hardware • • • • • 8051 Microcontroller PIC Microcontroller AVR Microcontroller ARM Microcontroller FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array) • CPLD(Complex Programmable Logic Device) .

Firmware tools • • • • 8051. micro c AVR – Code Vision Avr ARM .KEIL advanced versions .Source Boost .KEIL Compiler & Assembler PIC .

ECE Flash • PIC .Matrix pppv3 . pickit • AVR – Pony Prog .Programming tools • 8051 – Flash Magic .

Hardware tools • Hardware programmers • Application debuggers .

ECE Flash 8051 Application Board . Core hardware 2.Worked On… 1. Firmware tools Phillips 89V51RD2. Programming tool 4. Hardware tools Flash Magic . KEIL microVISION3 3.

Phillips 89V51RD2. 9 interrupts. 3 Timer/counters. 64K+8K FLASH. • It has 32 I/O lines. . 14 priority levels. • The NXP (founded by Phillips) P89V51RD2 is a 40 Mhz 5 volt 8051 based uc.

source code editing. program debugging and simulation. • Microvision3 combines project management.KEIL microVISION3 • Keil is a compiler and assembler which allows to write program in c as well as assembly. .

Double Click on the icon present on the desktop 2.1.The following window will be popped-up .

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Go to the project & click on new project .3.

.Make a folder on desktop & give file name.4.

5.when you click on the save button .following window opens .

6. Select Philips & 89V51RD2 .

Then select NO on the pop-up given below. .7.

Then make a New File. .8.

c or . . Write or copy your gsm code there & save it with extension .9.asm depending on your coding.

10. . right click on there & click on the option add files to the project.Go to target & then source group.

11.Select your asm or c file which you want to add. .

Go to the option for target.12. click on output & tick on create hex file option .

(Click on the pointed option).Now build target..13. .

It will show you 0 errors & 0 warning on Output Window.14. .

. ECE Flash • Flash magic is a PC tool for programming flash based microcontrollers from NXP using a serial or ethernet protocol while in the target hardware.Flash Magic .

8051 Application Board .

LEDs • LEDs are light emitting diodes which emit light when an electric current passes through them. electromechanical or electronic used in alarms. Buzzers A buzzer is an audio signaling device. which may be mechanical. . timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke .

BC547 transistor is used to provide switching of buzzer. .While interfacing it uses single bit of controller.

Relays  An Electromechanical device  Relay operates on +5v switches to +12v or 220 v state  Wide variety applications such as in telephone exchanges. digital computers and automation systems .

Relay operation • When there is no voltage applied on coil. . • When a voltage is applied on coil . • It attracts the armature towards the 2nd pin closing the switch. magnetic field is produced. switch is open.

When the button is released. the circuit is broken.Push to on switches A Push to on switch. . allows electricity to flow between its two contacts when held in.

. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC).A/D Converter • An analog-to-digital converter is a device which converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. • Typically. an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage (or current) to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current.

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segment • A seven-segment display (SSD). is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numeral that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays.[ .Seven . electronic meters. or seven-segment indicator. and other electronic devices for displaying numerical information. • Seven-segment displays are widely used in digital clocks.

dot matrix printers and robotics. • In applications such as disk drives.Stepper Motor • A stepper motor is a widely used device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical movement. stepper motor is used for position control. .

Washing Machines • AVIONICS: Airplanes. and car entertainment systems. scanners. SONARs (for surveillance).Embedded Applications • AUTOMOBILES: Fuel Injection control (for fuel efficiency). • MEDICAL ELECTRONICS: Many sophisticated medical instruments (Body Scanners. • BUSINESS APPLICATIONS: Vending machines. Heart rate monitors. Pacemaker etc) • Industrial Control: such as CNC machines are example embedded systems. Toys. • CONSUMER ELECTRONICS: Cameras. Air bags and Automatic braking (for safety). printers. Guided Missile Systems . Satellite Stations • Defense: RADARs. Cellular Phones.

run with limited computer hardware resources. little memory and small or even non-existence keyboard or screen. • Program instructions for e. • Allow the system hardware to be simplified so costs are reduced.s. • In the form of small computerized parts in larger devices which serve a general purpose. .Merits • Designed to do a specific task and have real time time performance constraints which must be met.

• I/O port is very limited. so limited devices can be connected. and when more than that is needed. ROM is fixed . an external memory is attached.Demerits • It can do only one specific function for which it is designed. so limited programs can be feeded. . • As RAM.

For instance. one cannot imagine life without mobile phones for personal communication. While we search on patterns in each of these application spaces.Conclusion • Embedded systems are more than part of human life. we can clearly identify the trend as to where the future of embedded systems is heading. Its presence is virtually unavoidable in almost all facets of human endeavor. .

.Thank you….

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