Group 2 Uy, Ivan Flores, Rachel Sangria, Kathelene Peres, Meara Tia, Trixie

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Nicanor Tiongson, Ph.D., is a well-known critic, writer and academic scholar. He finished his undergraduate studies from Ateneo de Manila University where he received a bachelor’s degree in Humanities. He later received his Ph.D. in Philippine Studies from the University of the Philippines, Diliman. Tiongson was a founding member of the Manunuri ng Wikang Pilipino. The organization was primarily established to achieve its goal of recognizing, appreciating and giving of awards to people behind the Philippine movies. He became part of the Cultural Center of the Philippines, an institution that nurtures Philippine identity through recognizing and appreciating Filipino aesthetics and promoting positive cultural values. He also became part of the Movie and Television Censorship and Review Board or MTRCB. Tiongson wrote and edited critiques, essays and books on Filipino and Philippine literature, theater and culture. He was acclaimed by the Manila Critics Circle and the National Book Development Board and was a finalist for the National Book Awards in 2007.

Cinema has risen as one of the most popular means of mass communication in contemporary Philippines. Movies theatre’s before are the important commercials centers from Aparri to Jollo. That time Nora Aunor has truly become national figure and the Tagalog has risen to the status of a real national language. No doubt those movie theatres are the most important to those people before.

The Principal values encountered in most Filipino movies today are the same negative values they have inherited from the traditional dramas. Four of these values which we must single out for their prevalence, perseverance and perniciousness maybe encapsulated in the following statements: Maganda ang maputi “White is beautiful” Masaya ang may palabas “Shows are the best” Mabuti ang inaapi “Hurrah for the undergo” Maganda pa ang daigdig “All is right in the world”

During the Spanish times:
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To be a prince or a princess in a komedya, one had to “look a part”.
One had to have sharp nose, big eyes, small mouth, and most of all, White skin. He or she had to have magandang tindig, which is to be “tall like a man”. During the American times: Bodabil/stage not only singled out Filipinos who can do imitations but necessarily favoured the Caucasian-looking either as the closer imitations of the “originals” or as “leading mans types”, above the “ethiclooking ” who, in spite of their superior talent, were relegated to slapstick comedians and roles of maids or minor friends.

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In the past as well as in the present, the obsession with entertainment could be satisfied by any of the following ingredients: bakbakan, iyakan, sayawan, kantahan and tawanan. Forms of Entertainment before: Komedya- delighted the audience for days with batallas or fights between individuals in armies.

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Sinakulo- provided the masses with an entertainment of both laughter and tears.
Zarzuela- responsible for forming and crystallizing the taste of the masses for musicals. Dramas- entertained by squeezing the glands dry and making a river of one’s nose. Bodabil- American song and dance. Stage shows- American song and dance.

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In the Spanish times the two principal forms of literature and their dramatic counterparts set up two types of heroes for the indios edification and emulation.
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The pasyon and its dramatic counterpart, the sinakulo The awits and koridos and their dramatic counterparts, the komedya and the moro-moro During the American regime, usually has for heroines are, blushing rural maids, utusans, labanderas, tinderas of sampaguita, kakanin who are hounded by various relentless furies, represented by adject poverty by rich donyas, evil madastras, malicious mother-in-law,and ugly but well dresses step-sisters.

In Spanish times, the colonial dramas always ended with the affirmation that all evil are punished and all good are rewarded. In American times, the maudlin heroines and shy heroes of the dramas and zarzuelas were showered with happy endings usually in the form of marriage to a rich man’s son or daughter and were besieged by teary repentance of donyas madrastas and sisterin-laws

1. Why do you think the cinemas has risen as one of the most popular and powerful means of mass communication today?

Cinemas hold many special and fond memories for individuals. The medium invokes an emotional connection through the visual and moving image and has entertained generations for more then a hundred years now.

2. Why is Philippine aesthetics considered colonial?

Kayumanggi versus Maputi Filipinos have always considered foreigners as beautiful wherein they regard fellow Filipinos as ordinary. Since Light coloring is correlated with intelligence and a light-skinned attractive person will receive advancement before his or her colleagues.

3. Do you agree that the principal values found in most Filipino movies today are negative?

4. Cite some of the standards of beauty in the Philippines.

White is beautiful. During the Spanish times, to be a prince or a princess in a komedya, one had to “look the part”. One had to have sharp nose, big eyes, small mouth, and most of all, white skin. He or she had to have “magandang tindig”, which is to be “tall like a man”. Bodabil not only singled out Filipinos who can do imitations but necessarily favored the Caucasian-looking either as the closer imitations of the “originals” or as “leading mans types”, above the “ethnic-looking” who, in spite of their superior talent, were relegated to slapstick comedians and roles of maids or minor friends.

5. What kind of entertainment do most Filipinos find most enjoyable?

Komedya Sinakulo Zarzuela Dramas Bodabil Stage Show

6. What is the concept of “hero” in Filipino motion pictures?

The concept of “Mabuti ang Inaapi” has always been the characteristic of the “hero” in Filipino movies. During the American regime, blushing rural maids, “utusan”, “labandera”, “tinderas” of sampaguitas or kakanins who are hounded by various relentless furies, represented by poverty by rich donyas, evil madastras, malicious motherin-laws, and ugly but well-dressed step-sisters.

7. Discuss some of the reasons why most Filipino movies have happy endings? To assure that all evil are punished and all good are rewarded.

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