is product of many different factors, which combine to make every paragraph, every sentence, and every phrase contribute to the meaning of the whole piece. Coherence in writing is much more difficult to sustain than coherent speech simply because writers have no nonverbal clues to inform them if their message is clear or not. Therefore, writers must make their patterns of coherence much more explicit and much more carefully planned. Coherence itself is the product of two factors — paragraph unity and sentence cohesion.

Paragraph Unity
To achieve paragraph unity, a writer must ensure two things only. First, the paragraph must have a single generalization that serves as the focus of attention, that is, a topic sentence. Secondly, a writer must control the content of every other sentence in the paragraph's body such that (a) it contains more specific information than the topic sentence and (b) it maintains the same focus of attention as the topic sentence.

This generalization about paragraph structure holds true for the essay in particular. The two major exceptions to this formula for paragraph unity are found in fiction (where paragraph boundaries serve other functions, such as indicating when a new speaker is talking in a story) and in journalism (where paragraphs are especially short to promote 'visual' ease by creating white space).

Sentence Cohesion
To achieve cohesion, the link of one sentence to the next, consider the following techniques:
• Repetition. In sentence B (the second of any two sentences), repeat a word from sentence A. •Synonymy. If direct repetition is too obvious, use a synonym of the word you wish to repeat. This strategy is call 'elegant variation.

• Antonymy. Using the 'opposite' word, an antonym, can also create sentence cohesion, since in language antonyms actually share more elements of meaning than you might imagine.

• Pro-forms. Use a pronoun, pro-verb, or another pro-form to make explicit reference back to a form mentioned earlier.

• Collocation. Use a commonly paired or expected or highly probable word to connect one sentence to another.

• Enumeration. Use overt markers of sequence to highlight the connection between ideas. This system has many advantages: (a) it can link ideas that are otherwise completely unconnected, (b) it looks formal and distinctive, and (c) it promotes a second method of sentence cohesion, discussed in (7) below. • Parallelism. Repeat a sentence structure. This technique is the oldest, most overlooked, but probably the most elegant method of creating cohesion.

• Transitions. Use a conjunction or conjunctive adverb to link sentences with particular logical relationships. • Identity. Indicates sameness. that is, that is to say, in other words, ...

• Opposition. Indicates a contrast. but, yet, however, nevertheless, still, though, although, whereas, in contrast, rather, ...

•Addition. Indicates continuation. and, too, also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides, in the same way, again, another, similarly, a similar, the same, ... • Cause and effect. therefore, so, consequently, as a consequence, thus, as a result, hence, it follows that, because, since, for, ... • Indefinites. Indicates a logical connection of an unspecified type. in fact, indeed, now, ...

• Concession. Indicates a willingness to consider the other side. admittedly, I admit, true, I grant, of course, naturally, some believe, some people believe, it has been claimed that, once it was believed, there are those who would say, ... • Exemplification. Indicates a shift from a more general or abstract idea to a more specific or concrete idea. for example, for instance, after all, an illustration of, even, indeed, in fact, it is true, of course, specifically, to be specific, that is, to illustrate, truly, ...

There are four significant devices which may help to attain coherence, namely:
a) Pronouns b) Repetition c) Synonyms d) Connectives

Basic Outlining
An outline presents a picture of the main ideas and the subsidiary ideas of any subject. Some typical uses of outlining are: a class reading assignment, an essay, a term paper, a book review or a speech. For any of these, an outline will show a basic overview and important details. Some professors will require an outline in sentence form, or require the main points to be in chronological order, or have other specific requirements. A student’s first responsibility, of course, is to follow the requirements of the particular assignment. What follows illustrates only the basics of outlining. The library presents it as a quick reminder because students often ask about outlining, and the information is not easy to find quickly in various reference books.

Below is a synopsis of the outline form. The main ideas take roman numerals. Sub-points under each main idea take capital letters and are indented. Sub-points under the capital letters, if any, take italic numbers and are further indented.
I. MAIN IDEA A. Subsidiary idea or supporting idea to I B. Subsidiary idea or supporting idea to I 1. Subsidiary idea to B 2. Subsidiary idea to B a) Subsidiary idea to 2 b) Subsidiary idea to 2 II. MAIN IDEA A. Subsidiary or supporting idea to II B. Subsidiary idea to II C. Subsidiary idea to II III. MAIN IDEA

… It is up to the writer to decide on how many main ideas and supporting ideas adequately describe the subject. However, if there is a I in the outline, there has to be a II; if there is an A, there has to be a B; if there is a 1, there has to be a 2, and so forth.

Suppose you are outlining a speech on AIDS, and these are some of the ideas you feel should be included: AZT, Transmittal, AIDS babies, Teenagers, Safe sex, Epidemic numbers, Research. To put these ideas into outline form, decide first on the main encompassing ideas. These might be: I. Transmittal, II. Societal Consequences, III. Research.Next, decide where the rest of the important ideas fit in. Are they part of AIDS transmittal or AIDS societal consequences or AIDS research solutions? The complete outline might look like this:

Major Aspects of Aids I. Transmittal of AIDS A. Transfusions B. Body fluids 1. Sexual 2. Non-sexual II. Societal Consequences of AIDS A. Epidemic disease pattern 1. Teenagers 2. Women 3. Homosexuals B. AIDS babies C. Increased homophobia D. Overburdened health care III. Research Solutions to AIDS A. AZT B. HIV virus C. Other viruses

It is only possible to make an outline if you have familiarity with the subject. Not only in the initial outline, but during the course of the research, the writer may find it necessary to add, subtract or change the position of various ideas. This is acceptable as long as the logical relationship among ideas is preserved.

Several aspects must be considered in writing a topic outline. • Recall that all headings and subheadings must be words or phrases, not sentences. • Also, the wording within each division must be parallel. • Finally, as in any outline, remember that a division or subdivision cannot be divided into one part; therefore, if there is an "A" there must be a "B," and if there is a "1" there must be a "2."

Family Problems

1. Custodial: Non-custodial Conflicts 2. Extended Family 3. Adolescent's Age • Economic Problem 1. Child Support 2. Women's Job Training 3.Lower Standard of Living 4.Possible Relocation Poorer neighborhood New School

•Peer Problems 1. Loss of Friends 2. Relationships with D

Several aspects must be considered in writing a sentence outline.
• If you have chosen to write a sentence outline, all headings and sub-headings must be in sentence form. • As in any outline, remember that a division or subdivision can not be divided into one part; therefore, if there is an "A" there must be a "B," and if there is a "1" there must be a "2."

Negative Effects of Divorce on Adolescents • When family conflicts arise as a result of divorce, adolescents suffer. 1. During the first year, these young people may be depressed due to conflicts between the custodial and noncustodial parents. 2. Grandparents, aunts, and uncles are often restricted by visitation provisions. 3. Almost without exception, adolescents find divorce very painful, but they react in differing degrees depending on their age. • Some of the most negative effects on adolescents may be associated with economic problems. 1. The family will most probably experience a lower standard of living due to the cost of maintaining two households. 2. Some female custodial parents have poor job skills and must train before entering the job market. 3. The lower standard of living may result in misunderstanding and conflicts within the family.

4. The decreased standard of living, particularly for an untrained female custodial parent, often causes relocation. a. The family may have to move to a poorer neighborhood in order to cut costs. b. As a result, the adolescent may have to attend a different school. • Adolescents from divorced families often experience peer problems. 1. Due to relocation and prejudice, adolescents may lose friends. 2. The lack of a solid relationship with both parents affects an adolescent's attitude toward the opposite sex.

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