A Performance Comparison of DSDV & AODV Routing Protocols for MANETs

Presented By : Chander Mohan, Pradeep Sharma & Monika Sharma Email me : ambitiouschander@gmail.com

• • • • • Purpose of this work Wired & Wireless Networks Introduction to MANETs Routing in MANETs Compare Two Protocols

• Simulation

– ns extensions – Protocol implementations

• Simulation results

Purpose of this work
• Wireless ad-hoc networks have gained a lot of importance in wireless communications. • Wireless communication is established by nodes acting as routers and transferring packets from one to another in ad-hoc networks. • Routing in these networks is highly complex due to moving nodes and hence many protocols have been developed. • Table driven (DSDV) & Source on demand (AODV) strategies are compared.

Wired & Wireless Networks
Wired Network
• Connected with the help of wires • Very High Speed • Expensive to maintain

Wireless Network
• Connected with the help of Radio Frequencies • Speed is not very high due to interference, multiple connections. • Large coverage area
Node 1 Node 2

Node 1

Node 2

Node 3

Node 3

Introduction to MANETs
• Wireless network without any pre-existing infrastructure • Dynamic nature of nodes i.e mobility • Every node act as a router • A MANET can be a standalone network or it can be connected to external networks like (Internet)

Example of MANET

IEEE 802.11b (WLAN) & MANET

Why Ad Hoc Networks?
• Setting up of fixed access points and backbone infrastructure is not always viable – Infrastructure may not be present in a disaster area or war zone – Infrastructure may not be practical for short-range radios; Bluetooth (range ~ 10m) • Ad hoc networks – Do not need backbone infrastructure support – Useful when infrastructure is absent, destroyed or impractical

• Personal area networking
– cell phone, laptop

• Military environment
– soldiers, tanks, planes

• Civilian environment
– – – – taxi cab network meeting rooms sports stadiums boats, small aircraft

• Emergency operations
– search-and-rescue – policing and fire fighting

Challenges in Mobile Environments
 Limitations of the Wireless Network
 packet loss due to transmission errors  frequent disconnections/partitions  limited communication bandwidth

 Limitations Imposed by Mobility
 dynamically changing topologies/routes  lack of mobility awareness by system/applications

 Limitations of the Mobile Computer
 short battery lifetime

Working of MANET

Features of MANETs
• • • • Autonomous Terminal Distributed Operation Multi hop Routing Dynamic Topology

Routing in MANETs
• Routing is the act of moving information from a source to a destination • Routing involves two activities - Determining optimal routing path - Transferring the packets

Classification of Routing Protocols in MANETs

Table Driven (Proactive)
• The nodes maintain a table of routes to every destination in the network • Keeping routes to all destinations up-to-date, even if they are not used, is a disadvantage with regard to the usage of bandwidth and of network resources • Low latency, suitable for realtime traffic

On-demand (Reactive)
• These protocols were designed to overcome the wasted effort in maintaining unused routes, Routing information is acquired only when there is a need for it • Saves energy and bandwidth during inactivity • Flooding is used for route discovery • Significant delay might occur as a result of route discovery

DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) Protocol
• Based on Bellman-Ford Routing Algorithm (BFRA) • Each node maintains a routing table which stores – next hop, cost metric towards each destination – a sequence number that is created by the destination itself • Each route is tagged with a sequence number; routes with greater sequence numbers are preferred

• When a node decides that a route is broken, it increments the sequence number of the route and advertises it with infinite metric

DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) Protocol
• When X receives information from Y about a route to Z – Let destination sequence number for Z at X be S(X), S(Y) is sent from Y




– If S(X) > S(Y), then X ignores the routing information received from Y – If S(X) = S(Y), and cost of going through Y is smaller than the route known to X, then X sets Y as the next hop to Z – If S(X) < S(Y), then X sets Y as the next hop to Z, and S(X) is updated to equal S(Y)

AODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing) Protocol
• Route Requests (RREQ) are forwarded to discover a route • When a node re-broadcasts a Route Request, it sets up a reverse path pointing towards the source

• When the intended destination receives a Route Request, it replies by sending a Route Reply (RREP)
• Route Reply travels along the reverse path set-up when Route Request is forwarded

Route Discovery in AODV
2 7 5

Source 1






Propagation of Route Request (RREQ) packet

In case of broken links……
• Node monitors the link status of next hop in active routes • Route Error packets (RERR) is used to notify other nodes if link is broken • Nodes remove corresponding route entry after hearing RERR

Route Discovery in AODV
2 7 5

Source 1






Path taken by Route Reply (RREP) packet

Simulation • Network Simulator ns-2.34 based on - Otcl (an object oriented extension of Tcl) - C++

Simulation Scenario



set ns_ [new Simulator]

Tcl Script

set node_(0) [$ns_ node] set node_(1) [$ns_ node]
class MobileNode : public Node { friend class PositionHandler; public: MobileNode(); • • }

C++ Implementation

What we need in one simulation?
• Appearance: the whole topology view of sensor network or mobile network
– The position of nodes: (x, y, z) coordinate – The movement parameters
• Starting time • To what direction • Speed

• Internal work: which nodes are the sources? what are the connections? and using what kind of connection? • Drive the simulation: What about the configuration network components on sensor node? Where to give out the simulation results? How to organize a simulation process?

Simulation Parameters

• Simulation Scenario

Packet Drop in AODV & DSDV at 70 sec



Results & Discussion

Throughput Analysis

• DSDV routing protocol consume more bandwidth, because of frequent broadcasting of updates • AODV is much better than DSDV as it results in less overhead and more bandwidth



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