Morphology | Morphology (Linguistics) | Word


Group 5 Tran Duy Khiem Cung Hoang Thanh Tran Quynh Anh Hoang Nguyen Thuy Duong

dogs and dog catcher?  They are closely related. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Morphology: What is morphology?  What is difference among dog.1.  .  Morphology is a field of linguistics that studies the internal structure of words.

… . devastation.  Prefix: impossible.2 Morpheme:  A morpheme is the minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function. illegal. talked. talker.1. teacher. …  Flexion: talks. irresponsible. …  Suffix: national.

3 DISTINGUISHING MORPHEME FROM WORD  Words are made up of morphemes. Fashionably: 3 morphemes. • Ex: Boy. brotherhood. Boyish. morphemes are the elements of words. In other words. Nationality. ability: 2 morphemes. money: 1 morpheme. Undesirability: 4 morphemes…. .1. sister.  A word may consist of one morpheme or many.

2. CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEME: Free Morphemes By Form Bound Morphemes Morphemes Bases/ Roots By Meaning Affixes .

that. careless-ly….…. fold. articles. prepositions. sad. hit. Ex: and. he. this…. verbs. . played. CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEME: 2. face. love. girl. pronouns. yet. joy. faith. Ex: gift.1 By form:  Free morpheme: A free morpheme is a morpheme which can stand by themselves with meaning. fast. there. dictionary. at. kill. the.  Bound morpheme: A bound morpheme is a morpheme which cannot normally stand alone but have to be attached to other morphemes to form a word. Ex: regain. an. but. adverbs. house. whether. doctor.2. here. in. laugh. she. hygiene… + Lexical morphemes: main words: ordinary nouns. which carry the “content” of messages we convey. Ex: Boy. + Functional morphemes: functional words: conjunctions. adjectives. antivirus. audi-ence. fun. on. a.

Ex: lovely. ambiguous…  . meaning. Base can be subdivided into: +Free base: the base is a free morpheme.2 BY MEANING: Bases/Roots: A base morpheme is the part of a word that has the principal meaning. powerful. It has its own meaning (lexical meaning) Ex: worker. intervene…. Ex: suicide. singer.2. alacrity. teaching… +Bound base: the base is a bound morpheme.

Normal: norm is the base and also stem. . but worker is the stem. Workers: work is the base. Normalize: norm is the base. Ex: Worker: work is the base and also the stem.NOTE: Bases and Stems: A base is a morpheme with principal meaning while a stem is the existing word before we add an affix. normal is the stem.

geese…  Suffixes are bound morphemes that occur after a base. drank. facing. In English.Affixes: An affix is a bound morpheme that occurs before or within or after a base  Affixes can be subdivided into:  By position:  Prefixes are bound morphemes added before the base. sang. . extraordinary…  Infixes are bound morphemes that have been inserted within a word. not additions. normal-ize. interfere. Ex: teeth. Ex: singer. They occur in irregular noun plurals or past tense or past participle. there are rare and are most commonly replacements. archbishop. Ex: antisocial.

John’s. loved. bigger. biggest… .By function:  Derivational: affixes added to a base or a stem to form a new word. Ex: govern (v) government (n) false (adj)  falsify (v) meaning (n)  meaningless (adj) respect (v)  disrespect (v)  Inflectional: affixes added to a stem to show grammatical forms of words (grammatical function) Ex: boys.

cooler.…. . 3rd person {-s} Ex: he works + Simple past {-ed} Ex: I played + Present participle {-ing} Ex: singing + Past participle {-ed} Ex: talked Adjective/adverb: + Comparative {-er} Ex: taller. NOTE:  There are only 8 inflectional morphemes:    Noun: + Plural {-s} Ex: joys. books…. funniest. slower… + Superlative {-est} Ex: biggest. + Possessive {-’s} Ex: Tom’s house Verb: + Simple present tense.

(Deriv-Suffix) .3. MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION  His (Free Base) fore(Deriv-Prefix) future (Free Base) -s (Infl Suffix) -tell(Free base) -ing (Infl-Suffix) my (Free Base) make (Free Base) nerv (nerve) (Free Base) me (Free Base) -ous.

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