MORPHOLOGY

Group 5 Tran Duy Khiem Cung Hoang Thanh Tran Quynh Anh Hoang Nguyen Thuy Duong

 .  Morphology is a field of linguistics that studies the internal structure of words.1 Morphology: What is morphology?  What is difference among dog. INTRODUCTION 1.1. dogs and dog catcher?  They are closely related.

…  Suffix: national. talked. irresponsible. devastation. teacher. … .2 Morpheme:  A morpheme is the minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function. illegal.1. talker. …  Flexion: talks.  Prefix: impossible.

In other words. brotherhood.  A word may consist of one morpheme or many.1. ability: 2 morphemes. Fashionably: 3 morphemes. sister. money: 1 morpheme. Boyish. • Ex: Boy. Undesirability: 4 morphemes….3 DISTINGUISHING MORPHEME FROM WORD  Words are made up of morphemes. morphemes are the elements of words. Nationality. .

CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEME: Free Morphemes By Form Bound Morphemes Morphemes Bases/ Roots By Meaning Affixes .2.

Ex: gift. here. sad. dictionary. kill. this…. joy. hygiene… + Lexical morphemes: main words: ordinary nouns. a. on. pronouns. that. which carry the “content” of messages we convey.…. audi-ence. at. antivirus. prepositions. love. she. careless-ly….1 By form:  Free morpheme: A free morpheme is a morpheme which can stand by themselves with meaning. there. Ex: and. adjectives.  Bound morpheme: A bound morpheme is a morpheme which cannot normally stand alone but have to be attached to other morphemes to form a word. laugh. adverbs. house. but. CLASSIFICATION OF MORPHEME: 2. in. played. yet. he. + Functional morphemes: functional words: conjunctions. face. Ex: Boy. verbs. an. Ex: regain. articles.2. doctor. fast. the. whether. faith. fold. hit. fun. girl. .

meaning. intervene…. teaching… +Bound base: the base is a bound morpheme. singer.2 BY MEANING: Bases/Roots: A base morpheme is the part of a word that has the principal meaning. Ex: suicide. ambiguous…  . Ex: lovely. Base can be subdivided into: +Free base: the base is a free morpheme. powerful.2. It has its own meaning (lexical meaning) Ex: worker. alacrity.

Normal: norm is the base and also stem.NOTE: Bases and Stems: A base is a morpheme with principal meaning while a stem is the existing word before we add an affix. but worker is the stem. . Workers: work is the base. normal is the stem. Ex: Worker: work is the base and also the stem. Normalize: norm is the base.

not additions.Affixes: An affix is a bound morpheme that occurs before or within or after a base  Affixes can be subdivided into:  By position:  Prefixes are bound morphemes added before the base. there are rare and are most commonly replacements. Ex: teeth. Ex: singer. Ex: antisocial. normal-ize. drank. interfere. extraordinary…  Infixes are bound morphemes that have been inserted within a word. geese…  Suffixes are bound morphemes that occur after a base. archbishop. facing. . sang. They occur in irregular noun plurals or past tense or past participle. In English.

Ex: govern (v) government (n) false (adj)  falsify (v) meaning (n)  meaningless (adj) respect (v)  disrespect (v)  Inflectional: affixes added to a stem to show grammatical forms of words (grammatical function) Ex: boys. bigger. John’s.By function:  Derivational: affixes added to a base or a stem to form a new word. biggest… . loved.

…. books…. NOTE:  There are only 8 inflectional morphemes:    Noun: + Plural {-s} Ex: joys. . cooler. funniest. 3rd person {-s} Ex: he works + Simple past {-ed} Ex: I played + Present participle {-ing} Ex: singing + Past participle {-ed} Ex: talked Adjective/adverb: + Comparative {-er} Ex: taller. + Possessive {-’s} Ex: Tom’s house Verb: + Simple present tense. slower… + Superlative {-est} Ex: biggest.

3. MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION  His (Free Base) fore(Deriv-Prefix) future (Free Base) -s (Infl Suffix) -tell(Free base) -ing (Infl-Suffix) my (Free Base) make (Free Base) nerv (nerve) (Free Base) me (Free Base) -ous. (Deriv-Suffix) .

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