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Operating Systems

408351 Section 1 4 October 2009

Chapter 1: Introduction
What is an Operating System? What Operating Systems Do Computer-System Organization Computer-System Architecture Operating-System Structure Operating-System Operations Process Management, Memory Management, Storage Management Protection and Security Mainframe Systems Desktop Systems Multiprocessor Systems Distributed Systems Clustered System Real -Time Systems Handheld Systems Special-Purpose Systems Computing Environments
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Objectives
To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components To provide coverage of basic computer system organization

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Computer Software

Software
Application Software LaTex Word Games
Compilers

System Software
Operating System Assembler

Virtual

File

I/O Device

Memory

System
Process Management

Driver

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What is an Operating System?


A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. Operating system goals: Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier. Make the computer system convenient to use. Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.

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Computer System Components


1. Hardware provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). 2. Operating system controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users. 3. Applications programs define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users (compilers, database systems, video games, business programs). 4. Users (people, machines, other computers).

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Four Components of a Computer System

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Operating System Definitions


No universally accepted definition Resource allocator manages and allocates resources. Decides between conflicting requests for efficient and fair resource use Control program Controls execution of programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer. Kernel the one program running at all times (all else being application programs). As a virtual machine: Operating system provides a "new" machine. Allows many users to believe they have an entire piece of hardware to themselves

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Computer Startup
bootstrap program is loaded at power-up or reboot Typically stored in ROM or EPROM, generally known as firmware Initializates all aspects of system Loads operating system kernel and starts execution

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Computer System Organization


Computer-system operation One or more CPUs, device controllers connect through common bus providing access to shared memory Concurrent execution of CPUs and devices competing for memory cycles

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Computer-System Operation
I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently. Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type. Each device controller has a local buffer. CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller. Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt.
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Why are operating systems important?


Use up a small percentage of the CPU time, but supports many machines all the time. They perform more functions for more users than any other program. They are necessary for any use of the computer. When "the (operating) system" is down, the computer is down. They are used by many users. Lifetime - the systems remain around longer than the programmers who wrote them. Complexity - the system must do difficult things. Deal with ugly I/O devices, multiplexing-juggling act, handle errors (hard!). Asynchronous - must do several things at once. Handles interrupts, and must change what it is doing thousands of times a second - and still get work done. General purpose - must do many different things. Run Doom, Java, Fortran, Lisp, Trek, Databases, Web Servers, etc. Everybody wants their stuff to run well. Need to adapt to changes very well: New devices, processors, applications.

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Device-Status Table

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Direct Memory Access Structure


Used for high-speed I/O devices able to transmit information at close to memory speeds. Device controller transfers blocks of data from buffer storage directly to main memory without CPU intervention. Only one interrupt is generated per block, rather than the one interrupt per byte.

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Storage Structure
Main memory only large storage media that the CPU can access directly. Secondary storage extension of main memory that provides large nonvolatile storage capacity. Magnetic disks rigid metal or glass platters covered with magnetic recording material Disk surface is logically divided into tracks, which are subdivided into sectors. The disk controller determines the logical interaction between the device and the computer.

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Storage Hierarchy
Storage systems organized in hierarchy. Speed Cost Volatility Caching copying information into faster storage system; main memory can be viewed as a last cache for secondary storage.
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Caching
Important principle, performed at many levels in a computer (in hardware, operating system, software) Information in use copied from slower to faster storage temporarily Faster storage (cache) checked first to determine if information is there If it is, information used directly from the cache (fast) If not, data copied to cache and used there Cache smaller than storage being cached Cache management important design problem Cache size and replacement policy
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Performance of Various Levels of Storage Movement between levels of storage hierarchy can be explicit or implicit

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Migration of Integer A from Disk to Register


Multitasking environments must be careful to use most recent value, no matter where it is stored in the storage hierarchy

Multiprocessor environment must provide cache coherency in hardware such that all CPUs have the most recent value in their cache Distributed environment situation even more complex Several copies of a datum can exist Various solutions covered in Chapter 17
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Operating System Structure


Multiprogramming needed for efficiency Single user cannot keep CPU and I/O devices busy at all times Multiprogramming organizes jobs (code and data) so CPU always has one to execute A subset of total jobs in system is kept in memory One job selected and run via job scheduling When it has to wait (for I/O for example), OS switches to another job Timesharing (multitasking) is logical extension in which CPU switches jobs so frequently that users can interact with each job while it is running, creating interactive computing Response time should be < 1 second Each user has at least one program executing in memory process If several jobs ready to run at the same time CPU scheduling If processes dont fit in memory, swapping moves them in and out to run Virtual memory allows execution of processes not completely in memory
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Memory Layout for Multiprogrammed System

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Operating-System Operations
Interrupt driven by hardware Software error or request creates exception or trap Division by zero, request for operating system service Other process problems include infinite loop, processes modifying each other or the operating system Dual-mode operation allows OS to protect itself and other system components User mode and kernel mode Mode bit provided by hardware Provides ability to distinguish when system is running user code or kernel code Some instructions designated as privileged, only executable in kernel mode System call changes mode to kernel, return from call resets it to user
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Common Functions of Interrupts


Interrupt transfers control to the interrupt service routine generally, through the interrupt vector, which contains the addresses of all the service routines. Interrupt architecture must save the address of the interrupted instruction. Incoming interrupts are disabled while another interrupt is being processed to prevent a lost interrupt. A trap is a software-generated interrupt caused either by an error or a user request. An operating system is interrupt driven.
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Interrupt Handling
The operating system preserves the state of the CPU by storing registers and the program counter. Determines which type of interrupt has occurred: Polling (no information is passed with the interrupt,
thus the CPU polls (asks) every device if it is the one who initiate the interrupt) the interrupt inform the CPU by adding its ID to the interrupt request)

vectored interrupt system (the device who issued


Separate segments of code determine what action should be taken for each type of interrupt

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Interrupt Timeline

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I/O Structure
After I/O starts, control returns to user program only upon I/O completion. Wait instruction idles the CPU until the next interrupt Wait loop (contention for memory access). At most one I/O request is outstanding at a time, no simultaneous I/O processing. After I/O starts, control returns to user program without waiting for I/O completion. System call request to the operating system to allow user to wait for I/O completion. Device-status table contains entry for each I/O device indicating its type, address, and state. Operating system indexes into I/O device table to determine device status and to modify table entry to include interrupt.
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Two I/O Methods


Synchronous Asynchronous

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Transition from User to Kernel Mode


Timer to prevent infinite loop / process hogging resources Set interrupt after specific period Operating system decrements counter When counter zero generate an interrupt Set up before scheduling process to regain control or terminate program that exceeds allotted time

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Process Management
A process is a program in execution. It is a unit of work within the system. Program is a passive entity, process is an active entity. Process needs resources to accomplish its task CPU, memory, I/O, files Initialization data Process termination requires reclaim of any reusable resources Single-threaded process has one program counter specifying location of next instruction to execute Process executes instructions sequentially, one at a time, until completion Multi-threaded process has one program counter per thread Typically system has many processes, some user, some operating system running concurrently on one or more CPUs Concurrency by multiplexing the CPUs among the processes / threads
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Process Management Activities


The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with process management: Creating and deleting both user and system processes Suspending and resuming processes Providing mechanisms for process synchronization Providing mechanisms for process communication Providing mechanisms for deadlock handling
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Memory Management
All data in memory before and after processing All instructions in memory in order to execute Memory management determines what is in memory when (placement and replacement) Optimizing CPU utilization and computer response to users Memory management activities
Keeping track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by whom Deciding which processes (or parts thereof) and data to move into and out of memory Allocating and deallocating memory space as needed
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Storage Management
OS provides uniform, logical view of information storage Abstracts physical properties to logical storage unit - file Each medium is controlled by device (i.e., disk drive, tape drive)
Varying properties include access speed, capacity, datatransfer rate, access method (sequential or random)

File-System management Files usually organized into directories Access control on most systems to determine who can access what OS activities include

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Creating and deleting files and directories Primitives to manipulate files and dirs Mapping files onto secondary storage Backup files onto stable (non-volatile) storage media
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Mass-Storage Management
Usually disks used to store data that does not fit in main memory or data that must be kept for a long period of time. Proper management is of central importance Entire speed of computer operation hinges on disk subsystem and its algorithms OS activities
Free-space management Storage allocation Disk scheduling

Some storage need not be fast



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Tertiary storage includes optical storage, magnetic tape Still must be managed Varies between WORM (write-once, read-many-times) and RW (read-write)
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I/O Subsystem
One purpose of OS is to hide peculiarities of hardware devices from the user I/O subsystem responsible for Memory management of I/O including buffering (storing data temporarily while it is being transferred), caching (storing parts of data in faster storage for performance), spooling (the overlapping of output of one job with input of other jobs) General device-driver interface Drivers for specific hardware devices

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Protection and Security


Protection any mechanism for controlling access of processes or users to resources defined by the OS Security defense of the system against internal and external attacks Huge range, including denial-of-service, worms, viruses, identity theft, theft of service Systems generally first distinguish among users, to determine who can do what
User identities (user IDs, security IDs) include name and associated number, one per user User ID then associated with all files, processes of that user to determine access control Group identifier (group ID) allows set of users to be defined and controls managed, then also associated with each process, file Privilege escalation allows user to change to effective ID with more rights
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Computing Environments
Traditional computer Blurring over time Office environment PCs connected to a network, terminals attached to mainframe or minicomputers providing batch and timesharing Now portals allowing networked and remote systems access to same resources Home networks Used to be single system, then modems Now firewalled, networked
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Computing Environments (Cont.)

Client-Server Computing Dumb terminals supplanted by smart PCs Many systems now servers, responding to requests generated by clients Compute-server provides an interface to client to request services (i.e. database) File-server provides interface for clients to store and retrieve files

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Peer-to-Peer Computing
Another model of distributed system P2P does not distinguish clients and servers Instead all nodes are considered peers May each act as client, server or both Node must join P2P network Registers its service with central lookup service on network, or Broadcast request for service and respond to requests for service via discovery protocol Examples include Napster and Gnutella
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Web-Based Computing
Web has become ubiquitous PCs most prevalent devices More devices becoming networked to allow web access New category of devices to manage web traffic among similar servers: load balancers Use of operating systems like Windows 95, client-side, have evolved into Linux and Windows XP, which can be clients and servers

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1- Mainframe Systems
Reduce setup time by batching similar jobs Automatic job sequencing automatically transfers control from one job to another. First rudimentary operating system. Resident monitor initial control in monitor control transfers to job when job completes control transfers back to monitor

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2- Multiprogrammed Batch Systems


Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time, and the CPU is multiplexed among them.

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OS Features Needed for Multiprogramming


I/O routine supplied by the system. Memory management the system must allocate the memory to several jobs. CPU scheduling the system must choose among several jobs ready to run. Allocation of devices.

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3- Time-Sharing SystemsInteractive Computing


The CPU is multiplexed among several jobs that are kept in memory and on disk (the CPU is allocated to a job only if the job is in memory). A job swapped in and out of memory to the disk. On-line communication between the user and the system is provided; when the operating system finishes the execution of one command, it seeks the next control statement from the users keyboard. On-line system must be available for users to access data and code.
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4-Desktop Systems
Personal computers computer system dedicated to a single user. I/O devices keyboards, mice, display screens, small printers. User convenience and responsiveness. Can adopt technology developed for larger operating system often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of protection features. May run several different types of operating systems (Windows, MacOS, UNIX, Linux)

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5- Parallel Systems
Multiprocessor systems with more than on CPU in close communication. Advantages of parallel system: Increased throughput Economical Increased reliability graceful degradation fail-soft systems

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Parallel Systems (Cont.)


Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) Each processor runs an identical copy of the operating system. Many processes can run at once without performance deterioration. Most modern operating systems support SMP Asymmetric multiprocessing Each processor is assigned a specific task; master processor schedules and allocated work to slave processors. More common in extremely large systems
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Multiprocessor Operating System


Share a set of physical memory blocks over an interconnection network (bus, cross-bar switch, multistage interconnection network) Face the same basic issues as in a single processor OS, but more complex due to the shared memory Several architectures for multiprocessor systems Loosely-coupled Tightly-coupled Tightly coupled system processors share memory and a clock; communication usually takes place through the shared memory Loosely coupled system each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as highspeed buses or telephone lines
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Multiprocessor Operating Systems


Challenges Mutual exclusion Ensure that only one process can access the shared resource at one time Cache coherence problem Occurs when a processor modifies data in its Cache, the data is also cached by other processors

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6- Distributed Systems
Distribute the computation among several physical processors. Advantages of distributed systems. Resources Sharing Computation speed up load sharing Reliability Communications

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Distributed Systems (cont)


Requires networking infrastructure. Local area networks (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN)

Distributed Operating Systems Provide transparencies of locations of resources, program execution Challenge: the lack of shared memory, global clock, and unpredictable delays May be either client-server or peer-to-peer systems.

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7-Clustered Systems
Clustering allows two or more systems to share storage. Provides high reliability. Asymmetric clustering: one server runs the application while other servers are standby. Symmetric clustering: all N hosts are running the application.

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Advanced Operating Systems Database Operating System Supports transactions, concurrency control and failure recovery Real-time Operating System Ensures that jobs are completed by deadlines Maximizes number of jobs satisfying deadlines

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8- Real-Time Systems
Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems. Well-defined fixed-time constraints. Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time. Hard real-time system: Disaster occurs if tasks are not done by the deadlines Soft real-time: Users are less satisfied Ex. Video streaming servers

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9- Handheld Systems
Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) Cellular telephones Issues: Limited memory Slow processors Small display screens.

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Advanced Operating Systems


1960-1970 OS designs focus on a stand-alone computer with a single processor Later OS designs focus on an advanced OS Classification of a advanced OS is driven by advances in high-speed architectures new applications Advanced OSes

Architecture driven
Multiprocessor systems
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Application driven
Database systems Real-time systems
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Distributed systems

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Migration of Operating-System Concepts and Features

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OS Design Approaches
Layered approach divides the OS into several layers. Each layer has welldefined functions Example: MULTICS Drawback: Functions must be carefully assigned to a layer because a layer can only use functionality of the layer directly beneath it. Kernel-based approach There is a collection of primitives, the kernel, over which the rest of the OS is built Example: Linux, Unix, Windows 2000 Virtual machine approach Creates an illusion that the entire machine is at the sole disposal of each user; this illusion is created by time-multiplexing of resources among all users. Example: IBM VM/370; users run CMS (Conversational Monitor System) OS on top of VM/370
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Whats Next
Detailed discussion of the various topics introduced today in succeeding meetings Please check the course homepage for news and new lecture notes.

See you next time

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