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1892 -1896

in Hongkong Founding of La Liga Filipina Rizal in Dapitan Trial and Execution

Rizal

1891-1892
Jose Rizal left Europe in a bid to stop the controversy and conflict between him and Marcelo H. del Pilar. He lost faith in Filipinos in Spain; he believed they can not do anything against Spain. The battlefield is in the Philippines; there is where we ought to be found.

1891-1892
Hongkong was the best place to stay: 1. proximity to the Philippines 2. good friend, Basa was there left Europe to Hongkong aboard S. S. Melbourne on October 18, 1891; arrived November 1, 1891. He opened his office as an oculist

1891-1892
In Hongkong, he conceptualize the Borneo Colonization Project. Bring his relatives and the three hundred families, who had been dispossessed in Calamba, to Borneo and there to establish a new Filipino colony under the free British flag.

that seeing how the Philippines lacked labor, it was not very patriotic to go off and cultivate a foreign soil, and hence we cannot favor that project, but we added that every Filipino was free, in any part of the Archipelago he chose, to contribute to the prosperity of the country, so long as he obeyed the laws. -Governor-General Despujol

July, 1892, in a house in Tondo Rizal organized the La Liga Filipina


To unite the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous, and homogenous body; Mutual protection in every want and necessity; Defense against all violence and injustice; Encouragement of instruction, agriculture, and commerce; and Study and application of reforms.

July 17, 1892 September 1896

Dapitan was considered a remote place during the Spanish period. Under the jurisdiction of the Jesuits, Dapitan would be a home to Rizal for four years. Jose Rizal stayed at the house of Captain Carnicero instead of the Jesuit house.

July 17, 1892 September 1896

Rizals life in Dapitan was a period in which he marshalled his forces: hidden knowledge as engineer, educator and businessman. Linao Aqueduct, Plan for the Plaza, Casa Cuadrada, Relief Map of Mindanao, School for Boys annd Lighting System in

The

Jesuits conceived the deportation of Rizal to Dapitan. Begins with asking Rizal to stay at the Jesuit seminary only if Rizal retracts his stand against the church. The Jesuits often mentioned were: Fr. Obach, Fr. Sanchez and Fr. Pastells.

Josephine Bracken, an Irish/English woman Rizal met in Dapitan. Her identity often raised more questions than answers. Father: Geogre Tauffer, an almost blind man from Hongkong. Did Jose Rizal marry Josephine or not?

He wrote twice to Governor-General Ramon Blanco: 1894, to seek pardon and 1895, to be released and for his case to be reviewed He volunteered to be a surgeon in the Spanish Army in Cuba. September 3, 1896, on board Isla de Panay steamer he left Manila for Barcelona. He was accused as mastermind the revolution in Manila; therefore, he was summoned back to Manila. On board, SS Colon, he reached Manila and was directly sent to Fort Santiago, Intamuros on November 3, 1896.

As Surgeon in Spanish Cuban War


Mix with Cuban soldiers to solve Philippine situation

Study the war in practical way

Captain Francisco de Olive gathered the facts and specifics of Rizals proof of guilt. Special judge, Colonel Rafael Dominguez, conducted the preliminary investigation. November 20, 1896 was commencement of the preliminary investigation. The first day of investigation centered on two things: subversive activities of Rizal in Madrid and individuals as how they are related to Rizal.

Majority of the persons mentioned were unknown to Rizal. Pio Valenzuela, Antonio Salazar, Apolinario Mabini, Alejandro and Venancio Reyes, Moises Salvador, Arcadio del Rosario, Pedro Serrano and Timoteo Paez.

What would be the outcome of the preliminary investigation? it appears that the accused, Jose Mercado Rizal, is the principal organizer and the very soul of the Philippine insurrection. The trial of Jose Rizal was conducted from the prosecution view that he was associated with the Katipunan

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Subversive Propaganda: La Solidaridad Rizal: La Solidaridad has long been existing.

Masonry and Pedro Serrano Rizal: Pedro Serrano was of higher rank than me; I did not give any orders for him to establish masonry in the Philippines.

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The La Liga Filipina: Main goal was freedom and independence Rizal: Unity and development of commerce and industry

Katipunan: honorary president, kill the Spaniards, his photgraphs in the Katipunan headquarters Rizal: I do not know Andres Bonifacio; I did not permit the m to use my name of my photograph.

Lieutenant

Luis Taviel de Andrade was Rizals counsel. December 11, 1896, Rizal was formally charged with the crime of rebellion and crime of forming illegal organization.

What was the significance of the Manifesto?


It declared Rizals stand on the 1896 revolution: he did not support it

Was Rizal inherently against the revolution?


As a believer of the social contract theory, Rizal recognized peoples right to revolution

But he did not implicit deny the right to revolution and ideas of nationalism

He believed the Filipinos are not prepared for it: lacked of arms and motives of people

Court

martial found him guilty as charged and condemned him to death by firing squad. December 28, 1896, Gov-Gen. Polavieja ordered Rizal to be shot at seven oclock in the morning in December 30, 1896. He knew he was innocent but his death would be for a larger purpose.

To my family, I ask you for forgiveness for the pain I cause you, but some day I shall have to die and it is better that I die now in the plentitude of my conscience. Dear parents and brothers: give thanks to God that I may preserve my tranquility before my death. I die resigned, hoping that with my death you will be left in peace. Ah! It is better to die than to live suffering. Console yourselves. I enjoin you to forgive one another the little meanness of life and try to live united in peace and good harmony. Treat your old parents as you would like to be treated by your children later. Love them very much in my memory. Bury me in the ground. Place a stone and a cross over it. My name, the date of my birth and of my death. Nothing more. If later you wish to surround my grave with a fence, you can do it. No anniversaries. I prefer Paang Bundok. Have pity on poor Josephine.

Royal Fort of Santiago, 29 (?) December 1896 Mr. P. R. My dear brother, It has been four years and a half that we have not seen each other or have we addressed one another in writing or orally. I do not believe this is due to lack of affection either on my part or yours but because knowing each other so well, we had not need of words to understand each other. Now that I am going to die, it is to you I dedicate my last words to tell you how much I regret to leave you alone in life bearing all the weight of the family and of our old parents!

I think of how you have worked to enable me to have a career. I believe that I have not tried to waste my time. My brother: if the fruit has been bitter, it is not my fault; it is the fault of circumstances. I know that you have suffered much because of me: I am sorry. I assure you, brother, that I die innocent of this crime of rebellion. If my former writings had been able to contribute towards it, I should not absolutely deny it, but then I believe I expiated my past with my exile. Tell our father that I remember him, but how? I remember my whole childhood, his tenderness and his love. Ask him to forgive me for the pain I have unwillingly caused him. Your brother, Jos Rizal

6:00 a.m. 30 December 1896 My Most Beloved Father, Forgive me for the pain with which I pay you for your struggles and toils in order to give me an education. I did not want this nor did I expect it. Farewell, Father, farewell!

To my very beloved Mother, Mrs. Teodora Alonso At 6 o'clock on the morning of the 30th of December 1896 Jos Rizal

My Last Farewell

Farewell, my adored Land, region of the sun caressed, Pearl of the Orient Sea, our Eden lost, With gladness I give you my Life, sad and repressed; And were it more brilliant, more fresh and at its best, I would still give it to you for your welfare at most. On the fields of battle, in the fury of fight, Others give you their lives without pain or hesitancy, The place does not matter: cypress laurel, lily white, Scaffold, open field, conflict or martyrdom's site, It is the same if asked by home and Country. I die as I see tints on the sky b'gin to show And at last announce the day, after a gloomy night; If you need a hue to dye your matutinal glow, Pour my blood and at the right moment spread it so, And gild it with a reflection of your nascent light!

My dreams, when scarcely a lad adolescent, My dreams when already a youth, full of vigor to attain, Were to see you, gem of the sea of the Orient, Your dark eyes dry, smooth brow held to a high planev Without frown, without wrinkles and of shame without stain.
My life's fancy, my ardent, passionate desire, Hail! Cries out the soul to you, that will soon part from thee; Hail! How sweet 'tis to fall that fullness you may acquire; To die to give you life, 'neath your skies to expire, And in your mystic land to sleep through eternity ! If over my tomb some day, you would see blow, A simple humble flow'r amidst thick grasses, Bring it up to your lips and kiss my soul so, And under the cold tomb, I may feel on my brow, Warmth of your breath, a whiff of your tenderness.

Let the moon with soft, gentle light me descry, Let the dawn send forth its fleeting, brilliant light, In murmurs grave allow the wind to sigh, And should a bird descend on my cross and alight, Let the bird intone a song of peace o'er my site.

Let the burning sun the raindrops vaporize And with my clamor behind return pure to the sky; Let a friend shed tears over my early demise; And on quiet afternoons when one prays for me on high, Pray too, oh, my Motherland, that in God may rest I.
Pray thee for all the hapless who have died, For all those who unequalled torments have undergone; For our poor mothers who in bitterness have cried; For orphans, widows and captives to tortures were shied, And pray too that you may see you own redemption.

And when the dark night wraps the cemet'ry And only the dead to vigil there are left alone, Don't disturb their repose, don't disturb the mystery: If you hear the sounds of cithern or psaltery, It is I, dear Country, who, a song t'you intone.
And when my grave by all is no more remembered, With neither cross nor stone to mark its place, Let it be plowed by man, with spade let it be scattered And my ashes ere to nothingness are restored, Let them turn to dust to cover your earthly space. Then it doesn't matter that you should forget me: Your atmosphere, your skies, your vales I'll sweep; Vibrant and clear note to your ears I shall be: Aroma, light, hues, murmur, song, moanings deep, Constantly repeating the essence of the faith I keep.

My idolized Country, for whom I most gravely pine, Dear Philippines, to my last goodbye, oh, harken There I leave all: my parents, loves of mine, I'll go where there are no slaves, tyrants or hangmen Where faith does not kill and where God alone does reign.
Farewell, parents, brothers, beloved by me, Friends of my childhood, in the home distressed; Give thanks that now I rest from the wearisome day; Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, who brightened my way; Farewell, to all I love. To die is to rest.

La Voz Espaola and Diario de Manila (December 30, 1896)

La Juventud (February 14, 1897)

Original Text discovered in 1935

El Imparcial (December 31, 1897)

Father Balaguer Tomas Feijoo Father Pio Pi S.J.

Luis Tavaiel Andrade

Father Silvino Lopez Tunon

Father Rossel, S.J.

Capatin Rafael Dominguez

Gaspar Catano

Father Viza