SAND CASTING

MOLD AND MOLD MAKING

Schematic of foundry sand processes and material flows .

large  more permeable.small  better surface finish on the cast part . allowing gases to escape during pouring Distribution of grain size in the mixture Shape of the individual grains – irregular shapes is stronger because of interlocking.The Foundry Sand Most common sand to used – Silica (SiO2) or silica mixed with other minerals Important features of foundry sands: • • Good refractory properties .capacity to endure high temperatures without melting Grain size . compared to round grains – Disadvantage: interlocking tends to reduce permeability • • .

Allow gases and steam escape .Selection of Sands Smaller grain size results in a good surface finish Irregular grain shapes produce stronger mould Larger grain size ensures better permeability .

g.Ingredients of Moulding Sands Mold material The grains of sand are held together by a mixture of water and bonding clay  Control of the moisture content of the molding sand  Coats the clay flakes’ surface. grain distribution. with suitable water content  e. of clay minerals: bentonites Sand (SiO2) 90% Differ in:  Average grain size. and grain shape  Chemical composition  Refractoriness and thermal stability . help in bonding – develop strength Water 3% Clay 7%  Bonding agent  Source of the strength and plasticity.

Properties required in moulding material – used to determine the quality of the sand mould .

and gating design Effect of the Ingredients: • Each of the ingredients can have important effects in the properties • Principal ingredient  Silica Sand Grains Effects of the Sand Grains: • Casting surface finish. mold permeability.Moulding Sand Properties The properties depends on several factors: The sand ingredients  The methods of preparing the sand for molding  The method of molding employed in using the sand  Variables related to the casting e. kind of casting alloy. weight.g. and expansion characteristics are all influenced by the sand grain portion of the mixture • Sand-grain contour of the mold cavity • Fine grains smooth wall at the metal interface . and strength. refractoriness. shape.

Moulding Sand Properties Sand Grains and Permeability: • Coarser sand  greater permeability • Finer sand  lower permeability • The grain size distribution has a pronounced effect on permeability • Narrowest distribution range and minimum of fine materials such as silt or clay present  most permeable • Permeability is also promoted by the rounded type of sand grain Sand Grains and Strength: • Strength  surface area of sand grains available for binding • Fine sands present more surface area and can develop high strength.ability of the molding material to resist temperature of the liquid metal so it not get merged with the metal • High refractoriness  sand grains of maximum purity and size • Impurity which discolour silica lower its fusion point • Finer grains appear to be more easily merged than coarser ones . but of course more clay is required • Size distribution  wide size distributions favour strength. while narrow distributions reduce strength • Angular sand grains  More strength Sand Grains and Refractoriness: • Refractoriness .

there is an optimum water content • The effects of the clay on dry and hot strengths are quite important • Too low and dry strength permits washing of the sand by the metal. and hence more steam is formed when the metal is poured . and dirt in the castings • Too low or too high a hot strength is also undesirable • Aluminium castings  only green and dry strength have appreciable importance since casting are poured at low temperatures Clay Content and Permeability: • Permeability are reduced by fine material in the sand • Increasing clay content  lowers permeability • Higher clay content also require more tempering water.Moulding Sand Properties Sand Grains and Expansion: • Wide size distribution  dense packing of the grains  cause expansion problems • Fine sands also expands more Clay and Sand Strength: • For a given clay type and content.

per in. as measured 2500 F • High clay contents together with the proper amount of water and ramming if the sand thus favour thermal stability Clay Content and Other Properties: • High hot and dry strengths are developed by bentonite and bentonitefire clay mixtures  less collapsibility • Combustible materials may be added to promote collapsibility • Excess clay  clay balls • Good mixing is required .03 to 0.04 in.Moulding Sand Properties Clay Content & Bulk Density: • Clay content also influence the bulk density achieved by the sand during ramming • A sand having minimum bulk density has much void space and will have a good permeability adequate with its sand grain characteristics Clay Content & Expansion: • Clay content of 10 to 14 % in the sand mixture are accompanied by minimum confined-expansion value. 0.

The mold is strengthen by baking it in an oven Advantages .Good reusability Drawbacks: .Mixture of sand.Made using organic binders rather than clay .Lower production rate because of drying time Types of Sand Mould .Distortion to the mold is greater .“green” – sand in the mold is moist .Castings susceptible to hot tearing .Good permeability .More expensive .Good dimensional accuracy control in high production Skin-dried mold No-bake mold .Hardens at room temperature .Green sand mold . and water .Synthetic liquid resin is mixed into the sand .Also called cold box mould .Good collapsibility .Sufficient strength for most applications .Moisture in the sand can cause defects in some casting Dry sand mold .Used for large castings .The mold begins like a green sand mold.High dimensional accuracy Drawbacks .Mold cavity surfaces are dried by torch or heating lamp to increase mold strength .Better dimensional accuracy and surface finish Drawbacks: . clay. but additional bonding materials are added .Slower production rate .Least expensive method of making molds Advantages: .

. simply a container in the shape of the desired part.Open Molds and Closed Molds Two forms of mold: (a) open mold. in which the mold geometry is more complex and requires a gating system (passageway) leading into the cavity. and (b) closed mold.

The Sand Casting Mold .

INGATE/CHOKE AREA: Once at the sprue base the molten material must pass through the ingate in order to enter the inner area of the mold. a generic term used to cover all gates. RUNNER: The portion of the gate assembly that connects the sprue to the casting in gate or riser. OPEN RISERS: Risers that are open at the top to the outside environment. The ingate is very important in flow regulation during the casting operation. mold or pattern. runners and risers. SPRUE: The vertical channel from the top of the mold to the gating and riser system. COPE: Upper or top most section of a flask. PARTING LINE: A line on a pattern or casting corresponding to the separation between the parts of a mold. . When filled with molten metal it forms a casting. MOLD CAVITY: The impression in a mold produced by the removal of the pattern. DRAG: Lower or bottom section of a flask. GATE: The end of the runner in a mold where molten metal enters the mold cavity. VENTS: Vents help to assist in the escape of gases that are expelled from the molten metal during the solidification phase of the metal casting process. mold or pattern. Also.Elements of a Gating System: POURING CUP: This is where the metal is poured into the mold. RISER: A reservoir of molten metal provided to compensate for the contraction of the metal as it solidifies. BLIND RISERS: Risers that are completely contained within the mold.

are known as the mold gating system. which serves to deliver the molten metal to all sections of the mold cavity. Rapid mold filling 2. The aims are to providing defect-free casting by: 1. runners. Controlled flow and thermal conditions 6. Avoiding erosion 4.. Minimizing turbulence 3. Removing inclusions 5. etc. Minimizing scrap and secondary operations .Gating System The pouring cup. downsprue.

to absorb metal momentum and avoid vortex formation .During pouring.Main function: -To reduce momentum of the liquid flowing into the mold by settling first into it .Elements of a Gating System Pouring Cup -As a reservoir from which the molten metal will moves smoothly into the sprue .Deep enough to avoid turbulence .Main requirements for pouring cup design: -One of the wall should inclined about 45º .To minimize splash and turbulence as the metal flows into downsprue . the pouring cup should be kept full – to avoid vortex formation Proportion of pouring cup dimension .

Sprue .A channel through which the molten metal is brought into the parting plane where it enters the runners and gates to ultimately reach the mould cavity .Tapered to gradually reduce the cross section – to eliminate problem of air aspiration Proportion of sprue height .Require smaller area of cross section at the bottom to gain velocity to flow .

Sprue Base Well .Dimension.general guideline : -Well area = 5 X sprue choke area -Well depth = runner depth .well diameter (for a narrow and deep runner) = 2.5 X runner width (in two runner system) = 2 X runner width (in one runner system) .To reduce momentum of the molten metal and flow through the runner in a uniform way  prevent splashing .A reservoir for metal at the bottom of the sprue .

width ~ 2 X runner depth .Design consideration: .circular cross section is preferable to avoid heat loss .sharp corners or sudden change of section should be reduced  to avoid turbulence and gas entrapment .the entry into runners from sprue base well should be made as smooth as possible Runner Extension .Connect to sprue – allowing molten metal to enter mold cavity .To trap contaminants in the molten metal .The runner is extended a little further after it encounters the in-gate .Runner .

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